cyclophosphamide, Cytoxan

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GENERIC NAME: cyclophosphamide

BRAND NAME: Cytoxan

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Cyclophosphamide is a drug that is used primarily for treating several types of cancer. In order to work, cyclophosphamide first is converted by the liver into two chemicals, acrolein and phosphoramide. Acrolein and phosphoramide are the active compounds, and they slow the growth of cancer cells by interfering with the actions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cancerous cells. Unfortunately, normal cells also are affected, and this results in serious side effects. In addition to slowing the growth of cancerous cells, cyclophosphamide also suppresses the immune system and is referred to as immunosuppressive. The FDA approved Cytoxan in November 1959.

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

PREPARATIONS: Powder for intravenous injection: 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg). Tablets: 25, 50 mg.

STORAGE: Powder and tablets should be stored at room temperature, 15-30 C (59-86 F). Solutions prepared with bacteriostatic water are usable up to 24 hours if stored at room temperature and up to 6 days if stored in the refrigerator.

PRESCRIBED FOR: Cyclophosphamide is used alone for the treatment of several types of cancers but often in combination with other drugs to treat breast cancer, leukemia and ovarian cancer. It also is approved for treating nephrotic syndrome (a disease of the kidneys) in children. Unapproved uses include the treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis, severe rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, advanced mycosis fungoides, and several of forms of vasculitis.




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