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- Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) facts
- What is cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)?
- What are the phases of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- What are causes, triggers, and risk factors of cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- What are cyclic vomiting syndrome symptoms and signs?
- What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- What is the treatment for cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- What specialists treat cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- Are there home remedies for cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)? Can dietary changes help CVS?
- What are the complications if cyclic vomiting syndrome is not treated?
- What is the relationship between cyclic vomiting syndrome and migraines?
- What other features and conditions accompany cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)? What is the prognosis for CVS?
- How common is cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- Is it possible to prevent cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)?
- What are the genetic changes related to cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- How do people inherit cyclic vomiting syndrome?
- What other names do people use for cyclic vomiting syndrome?
What are the genetic changes related to cyclic vomiting syndrome?
Although the exact causes of cyclic vomiting syndrome have yet to be determined, researchers have proposed several factors that may contribute to the disorder. These factors include changes in brain function, hormonal abnormalities, and gastrointestinal problems. Many researchers believe that cyclic vomiting syndrome is a migraine-like condition, which suggests that it is related to changes in signaling between nerve cells (neurons) in certain areas of the brain.
Some cases of cyclic vomiting syndrome may be related to genetic changes in mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA, mDNA, or mtDNA).
Several changes in mitochondrial DNA have been associated with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Some of these changes alter single DNA building blocks (nucleotides), whereas others rearrange larger segments of mitochondrial DNA. These changes likely impair the ability of mitochondria to produce energy. Defects in energy production may lead to symptoms during periods when the body requires more energy, such as when the immune system is fighting an infection. It remains unclear how changes in mitochondrial function are related to recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting.
How do people inherit cyclic vomiting syndrome?
In most cases of cyclic vomiting syndrome, affected people have no known history of the disorder in their family, but many CVS-affected individuals have a family history of related conditions, such as migraines, in their mothers and other maternal relatives. This family history suggests an inheritance pattern known as maternal inheritance or mitochondrial inheritance, which applies to genes contained in mitochondrial DNA. Disorders with mitochondrial inheritance can appear in every generation of a family and can affect both males and females. However, because mitochondria can be passed from one generation to the next only through egg cells (not through sperm cells), only females pass mitochondrial conditions to their children. In addition, most researchers suggest that CVS development may require other factors to help trigger genetic component.