- Childhood Illnesses You Should Know Slideshow
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- Bacterial Infections 101 Slideshow
- Patient Comments: Coxsackie Virus - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Coxsackie Virus - Experience
- Patient Comments: Coxsackie Virus - Treatment
- Coxsackie virus facts
- What is coxsackie virus?
- What are the types of coxsackie viruses, and what can they cause?
- What are coxsackie virus infection symptoms and signs?
- How do people get infected with coxsackie virus?
- What are the risk factors for coxsackie virus infection?
- How are coxsackie virus infections diagnosed?
- Is there any treatment for coxsackie virus infection?
- Can coxsackie virus infections be prevented?
- What is the prognosis of coxsackie virus infections?
Quick GuideSlideshow: Children's Health - Childhood Illnesses Every Parent Should Know
What are the types of coxsackie viruses, and what can they cause?
Coxsackie viruses are separable into two groups, A (CVA) and B (CVB), which are based on their effects on newborn mice (coxsackie A results in muscle injury, paralysis, and death; coxsackie B results in organ damage but less severe outcomes.) There are over 24 different serotypes of the virus (having distinct proteins on the viral surface). Coxsackie viruses infect host cells and cause host cells to break open (lyse).
Type A viruses cause herpangina (painful blisters in the mouth, throat, hands, feet, or in all these areas). Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is the common name of this viral infection. Coxsackie A 16 (CVA16) causes the majority of HFMD infections in the U.S. It usually occurs in children (age 10 and under), but adults can also develop the condition. This childhood disease should not be confused with the "foot and mouth disease" usually found in animals with hooves (for example, cattle, pigs, and deer). Type A viruses also cause inflammation of the eyelids and white area of the eye (conjunctivitis).
Type B viruses cause epidemic pleurodynia (fever, lung, and abdominal pain with headache that lasts about two to 12 days and resolves). Epidemic pleurodynia is also termed Bornholm disease. There are six serotypes of coxsackie B (1-6, with B 4 considered by some researchers as a possible cause of diabetes in a number of individuals).
Enterovirus 71, like coxsackie virus, also causes HFMD. In Asia in July 2012, particularly Cambodia, children infected with enterovirus 71 (EV-71) had a high mortality rate due to encephalitis and acute polio-like paralysis. This epidemic (mainly in babies, toddlers, and children under 2 years of age).