- Childhood Illnesses You Should Know Slideshow
- Enterovirus D68 Slideshow
- Bacterial Infections 101 Slideshow
- Patient Comments: Coxsackievirus - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Coxsackievirus - Experience
- Patient Comments: Coxsackievirus - Treatment
- Coxsackievirus facts
- What is a coxsackievirus?
- What are the types of coxsackieviruses, and what can they cause?
- Is the coxsackievirus contagious?
- How long are coxsackieviruses contagious?
- What is the incubation period for coxsackievirus infections?
- What are coxsackievirus infection symptoms and signs?
- How do people get infected with coxsackievirus?
- What are the risk factors for coxsackievirus infection?
- What specialists treat coxsackievirus infections?
- How do physicians diagnose coxsackievirus infections?
- Is there any treatment for coxsackievirus infection?
- Is it possible to prevent coxsackievirus infections?
- What is the prognosis of coxsackievirus infections?
Quick GuideChildhood Diseases: Measles, Mumps, & More
What is a coxsackievirus?
Coxsackievirus is a member of the Picornaviridae family of viruses in the genus termed Enterovirus. Coxsackieviruses are subtype members of Enterovirus that have a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA) for its genetic material. The enteroviruses are also referred to as picornaviruses (pico means "small," so "small RNA viruses"). Coxsackie virus was first isolated from human feces in the town of Coxsackie, N.Y., in 1948 by G. Dalldorf. Coxsackie virus is also written as coxsackievirus in some publications.
What are the types of coxsackieviruses, and what can they cause?
Coxsackieviruses are separable into two groups, A (CVA) and B (CVB), which are based on their effects on newborn mice (coxsackievirus A results in muscle injury, paralysis, and death; coxsackievirus B results in organ damage but less severe outcomes.) There are over 24 different serotypes of the virus (having distinct proteins on the viral surface). Coxsackieviruses infect host cells and cause host cells to break open (lyse).
Type A viruses cause herpangina (painful blisters in the mouth, throat, hands, feet, or in all these areas). Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is the common name of this viral infection. Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) causes the majority of HFMD infections in the U.S. It usually occurs in children (age 10 and under), but adults can also develop the condition. This childhood disease should not be confused with the "foot and mouth disease" usually found in animals with hooves (for example, cattle, pigs, and deer). Type A viruses also cause inflammation of the eyelids and white area of the eye (conjunctivitis). Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has caused herpangina (mouth blisters) in infants.
Type B viruses cause epidemic pleurodynia (fever, lung, and abdominal pain with headache that lasts about two to 12 days and resolves). Epidemic pleurodynia is also termed Bornholm disease. There are six serotypes of coxsackievirus B (1-6, with B 4 considered by some researchers as a possible cause of diabetes in a number of individuals).
Enterovirus 71, like coxsackievirus, also causes HFMD. In Asia in July 2012, particularly Cambodia, children infected with enterovirus 71 (EV-71) had a high mortality rate due to encephalitis and acute polio-like paralysis. This epidemic (mainly in babies, toddlers, and children under 2 years of age).