Cox-2 Inhibitors (cont.)

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Older NSAIDs (for example, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc.) all act by blocking the action of both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. COX-2 inhibitors selectively block the COX-2 enzyme and therefore have a lower risk of causing ulcers of the stomach or intestine.

What are side effects of COX-2 inhibitors?

Common side effects of COX-2 inhibitors include:

COX-2 inhibitors may increase the risk of serious, even fatal stomach and intestinal adverse reactions, such as ulcers, bleeding, and perforation of the stomach or intestines but to a lesser extent than other nonselective NSAIDs that block both COX-1 and COX-2. These events can occur at any time during treatment and without warning symptoms.

People allergic to sulfonamides, for example, trimethoprim (Trimpex, Proloprim, Primsol) and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), aspirin or other NSAIDs may experience allergic reactions to COX-2 inhibitors and should not take them. Serious allergic reactions have occurred in such patients.

NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, may increase the risk of heart attacks, stroke, and related conditions. This risk may increase in patients with risk factors for heart disease and related conditions and with longer duration of use; therefore to reduce the risk of heart attacks, stroke, and similar events the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration of time should be used. NSAIDs should not be used after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/2/2015

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