Cox-2 Inhibitors (cont.)
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
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In this Article
NSAIDs are used frequently by millions of individuals for treatment of pain, fever and swelling caused by inflammatory conditions as well as for pain alone. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, chemical messengers that often are responsible for the pain and swelling of inflammatory conditions.
Prostaglandins are made by two different enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The prostaglandins made by the two different enzymes have slightly different effects on the body. COX-2 inhibitors are NSAIDs that selectively block the COX-2 enzyme and not the COX-1 enzyme. Blocking this enzyme impedes the production of prostaglandins by the COX-2 which is more often the cause the pain and swelling of inflammation and other painful conditions. Because they selectively block the COX-2 enzyme and not the COX-1 enzyme, these drugs are uniquely different from traditional NSAIDs which usually block both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes.
COX-2 inhibitors are used for treating:
What is the basic difference between traditional NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors?
COX-1 is an enzyme which is normally present in a variety of tissues in the body, including sites of inflammation and the stomach. Some of the prostaglandins made by COX-1 protect the inner lining of the stomach. Common NSAIDs such as aspirin block both COX-1 and COX-2 (see below). When the COX-1 enzyme is blocked, inflammation is reduced, but the protection of the lining of the stomach also is lost. This can cause stomach upset as well as ulceration and bleeding from the stomach and even the intestines.
The other cyclooxygenase, COX-2, also produces prostaglandins, but the COX-2 enzyme is located specifically in areas of the body that commonly are involved in inflammation but not in the stomach. When the COX-2 enzyme is blocked, inflammation is reduced; however, since the COX-2 enzyme does not play a role in protecting the stomach or intestine, COX-2 specific NSAIDs do not have the same risk of injuring the stomach or intestines.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/2/2015
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