Catherine Burt Driver, MD, is board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Driver is a member of the American College of Rheumatology. She currently is in active practice in the field of rheumatology in Mission Viejo, Calif., where she is a partner in Mission Internal Medical Group.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Corticosteroids are a class of medications that are related to cortisone, a steroid. Medications of this class powerfully reduce inflammation. They are used to reduce the inflammation caused by a variety of diseases. Cortisone is one type of corticosteroid. For the purpose of this review, "cortisone" is used interchangeably with "corticosteroid."
Corticosteroids can be taken by mouth, inhaled, applied to
the skin, given intravenously (into a vein), or injected into the tissues of
the body. Examples of corticosteroids include prednisone and prednisolone (given by mouth), methylprednisolone sodium succinate injection
(Solu-Medrol) (given intravenously), as well as triamcinolone,
Kenalog, Celestone, methylprednisolone
(Depo-Medrol), and others (given by injection into body tissues). This
article describes the role of cortisone injections into the soft
tissues and joints.
Is a cortisone injection merely a pain reliever or temporary remedy?
Corticosteroids are not pain relievers. They reduce inflammation. When corticosteroids relieve pain, it is because they have reduced inflammation.
While the inflammation for which corticosteroids are given can recur, corticosteroid
injections can provide months to years of relief when used properly. These
injections also can cure diseases (permanently resolve them) when the problem is
tissue inflammation localized to a small area, such as bursitis and tendonitis. They can also cure certain forms of skin inflammation.
For what conditions are cortisone injections used?
Cortisone injections can be used to treat the inflammation of small
areas of the body (local injections), or they can be used to treat
inflammation that is widespread throughout the body (systemic
injections). Examples of conditions for which local cortisone injections are used
include inflammation of a bursa (bursitis of the hip, knee, elbow, or shoulder), a tendon
(tendonitis), and a joint (arthritis). Knee arthritis, hip bursitis, painful foot conditions such as plantar fasciitis, rotator cuff tendinitis, and many other conditions may be treated with cortisone injections. Epidural injections in the lumbar spine are cortisone injections inserted into a specific location in the spinal canal of the low back by a specialist under X-ray guidance (fluoroscopy). Systemic corticosteroid injections are used for more widespread conditions affecting many joints or the skin, such as allergic reactions, asthma, and
Coronary atherosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. Coronary atherosclerosis is the major cause of heart attacks. Heart attacks are the major cause of sudden unexpe"...