Corneal Disease (cont.)
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What Are Symptoms When Something is Wrong With the Cornea?
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With its ability for quick repair, the cornea usually heals after most injuries or disease. However, when there is deep injury to the cornea, the healing process may be prolonged, possibly resulting in a variety of symptoms, including:
If you experience any of these symptoms around your cornea, seek care from an eye doctor. They may indicate a more serious problem or require special treatment.
What Conditions Can Damage the Cornea?
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This is an inflammation of the cornea that sometimes occurs with infection after bacteria or fungi enter the cornea. These microorganisms can enter the eye after deep injury, causing infection, inflammation, and ulceration of the cornea. Though uncommon, this type of infection can also arise after injury from wearing contact lenses.
Symptoms of keratitis include:
Treatment usually includes antibiotic or antifungal eye drops.
Ocular Herpes (Herpes of the Eye)
This is a viral infection of the eye that may reoccur. The main cause of ocular herpes is the herpes simplex virus I (HSV I), the same virus that causes cold sores, but it can also result from the sexually transmitted herpes simplex II virus (HSV II) that causes genital herpes.
Ocular herpes produces sores on the surface of the cornea and, in time, the inflammation can spread deeper into the cornea and eye.
There is no cure for ocular herpes, but it can often be controlled with the use of antiviral drugs.
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
Shingles is a recurrence of the chickenpox virus in people who have already had the disease. After having chickenpox, this virus usually remains inactive within the nerves of the body. It can later travel down these nerves, infecting specific parts of the body, like the eye. Herpes zoster can cause blisters or lesions on the cornea, fever, and pain from nerve fibers. Corneal lesions usually heal by themselves, but antiviral treatment may reduce the inflammation.
Shingles can occur in anyone exposed to the chickenpox virus, but there is an increased risk in:
See your doctor if you have any symptoms of shingles.
There are over 20 corneal dystrophies, diseases that cause structural problems with the cornea. Some of the most common are:
Keratoconus is a progressive disease where the cornea thins and changes shape. Sometimes occurring as early as adolescence, this disease changes the curvature of the cornea, creating either mild or severe distortion, called astigmatism, and usually nearsightedness. Keratoconus may also cause swelling and scarring of the cornea and vision loss.
Things associated with keratoconus include:
At first, the condition is correctable with glasses or soft contact lenses. But, as the disease progresses, you may need to wear rigid gas permeable contact lenses. A corneal transplantation may also be necessary.
During this procedure, the damaged cornea is replaced with a donated cornea. This operation is successful in about 9 out of 10 people with advanced keratoconus. Even after a transplant, you most likely will need glasses or contact lenses to see clearly.
Map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy is the abnormal appearance of the basement membrane of the epithelium of the cornea. As this membrane that separates the epithelium and stroma grows irregularly (thicker in some places, thinner in others), findings in the cornea appear, resembling maps, dots and small fingerprints.
Map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy usually affects adults between the ages of 40 and 70, or children as a result of heredity. It is usually painless and causes no vision loss, and sometimes clears up without treatment. In some cases, however, epithelial erosion may occur. Epithelial erosion can expose the nerves lining the cornea, causing severe pain. The cornea's normal curvature may be altered causing astigmatism and nearsightedness.
As the cornea is altered, vision may be blurry and accompanied by:
Treatment may include an eye patch, eye drops, and ointments.
Fuchs' dystrophy is the gradual deterioration of endothelial cells for no apparent reason. As these cells thin over time, the cornea is less capable of removing water form the stroma, causing it to swell and distort vision. Haze and small blisters on the corneal surface may also appear.
As a slowly progressing disease, signs of Fuchs' dystrophy begin to appear in people 30 to 40 years of age, but it doesn't normally affect vision until about 20 years later. It is more common in women than men.
An early sign of Fuchs' dystrophy includes awakening with blurred vision that gradually clears up during the day. As the disease worsens, swelling becomes more consistent and vision blurs.
Lattice dystrophy is characterized by the presence of abnormal protein fibers throughout the stroma. Although this condition can occur at any age, early changes can be seen in childhood.
Lattice dystrophy gets its name from the clear overlapping lines of proteins in the stroma. This can make the cornea cloudy and reduce vision. In some people these proteins may cause epithelial erosion.
Treatment of Lattice dystrophy includes:
Symptoms may disappear with treatment, but a corneal transplant may be required. Although results of this surgery are very good, lattice dystrophy may reappear in transplant patients.
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Corneal Disease - Symptoms and Signs Question: What symptoms and signs did you experience with your corneal injury, disease, or infection?
Corneal Disease - Describe Experience Question: Please describe your experience with the condition that damaged your cornea.
Corneal Disease - Diagnosis Question: Please describe the events that led to a diagnosis of corneal disease.
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