Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
The stages of
COPD range from stage I to stage IV. As the stage number increases the disease
progressively becomes worse; stage IV is also known as "end stage" COPD.
the stage of COPD, other doctors besides the patient's primary care physician
may be involved and may include pulmonologists, lung surgeons, and/or other
professionals such as pulmonary rehabilitation specialists and other team
should contact their doctors about COPD if they experience any of the signs or
symptoms of COPD.
diagnosed by patient's breathing history and exposure to
cigarette smoking or
other agents. A pulmonologist usually determines the stage of COPD
by their FEV1 level.
for COPD includes avoidance of any of the likely causes such as cigarette smoke
or toxic fumes and by medications or, in a small number of patients, lung
surgery or lung transplant.
Individuals with COPD should contact their health-care professional before treating themselves with home remedies (for
antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids).
Medical treatments for COPD include medications
to stop smoking, various bronchodilators, anticholinergics, steroids, and enzyme
Other therapies for COPD may include
antibiotics, mucolytic agents, oxygen, endurance exercises, and yoga.
Surgery for COPD may include bullectomy,
lung volume reduction or lung transplant.
Prevention or risk lowering for COPD
includes avoidance of causes (smoking, for example) or vaccines that protect the
lungs from infection (for example, the flu and pneumococcal vaccines).
The prognosis and life expectancy for
individuals with COPD ranges from good to poor, depending on the person's COPD
stage, with a decreasing outlook as the stages progress toward stage IV.
Asthma is a complex clinical syndrome of chronic airway inflammation characterized by recurrent, reversible, airway obstruction. Airway inflammation also leads to airway hyperreactivity, which causes airways to narrow in"...