Cocaine and Crack Abuse (cont.)

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What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?

Withdrawal symptoms and signs for cocaine include irritability, depression, stomach upset, itching, problems with sleep, and craving the substance.

What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?

Drug addiction increases the risk of a number of negative life stressors and conditions. Individuals who are addicted to cocaine are at increased risk for domestic violence. Potential medical complications of cocaine abuse, particularly when in crack form, include tearing of the major artery in the body (aortic dissection), which is associated with extremely high blood pressure. Cocaine use is also a risk factor for having a heart attack.

For children who are exposed to cocaine while in the womb (in utero/prenatally), the problems it can cause have been found as early as infancy. Specifically, babies who had prenatal cocaine exposure have been found to be at risk for having trouble with memory and paying attention. Children of preschool and school age have been found to be at risk for having trouble paying attention and regulating their behaviors if they have been exposed to cocaine in utero. Children with a history of being exposed to cocaine during their first trimester of development in utero tend to experience slower growth over the long term compared to children who are not.

Even if effectively treated, the prognosis of cocaine dependency is not without challenges. Recovery from substance abuse is usually characterized by episodes of remission (abstinence from drug use) and relapse.

Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?

Kids Against Drugs (http://www.kidsagainstdrugs.com)

Narcanon (http://www.narcanon.org)

Narcotics Anonymous (http://www.na.org)

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: 800-NCA-CALL

National Drug Information Treatment and Referral Hotline: 800-662-HELP (4357)

National Institute on Drug Abuse (http://www.nida.nih.gov)

National Cocaine Hotline: 800-COCAINE (262-2463)

National Clearinghouse for Alcoholism and Drug Information: 800-729-6686

National Resource Center: 866-870-4979

REFERENCES:

Ackerman, J.P., T. Riggins, and M.M. Black. "A Review of the Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Among School-Aged Children." Pediatrics 125.3 Mar. 2010: 554-565.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline and Resources for Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, Second Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2006.

Barbosa de Carvalho, H., and S.D. Seibel. "Crack Cocaine Use and Its Relationship With Violence and HIV." Clinics (Sao Paulo) 64.9 Sept. 2009: 857-866.

Bhuvaneswar, C.G., G. Chang, L.A. Epstein, and T.A. Stern. "Cocaine and Opioid Use During Pregnancy: Prevalence and Management." Primary Care Companion for the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10.1 (2008): 59-65.

Brodie, J.D., B.G. Case, E. Figueroa, et al. "Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Vigabatrin for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence in Mexican Parolees." American Journal of Psychiatry 166 (2009): 1269-1277.

Chermack, S.T., R.L. Murray, M.A. Walton, B.A. Booth, J. Wryobeck, and F.C. Blow. "Partner Aggression Among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 98.1-2 Nov. 2008: 35-44.

Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. "Neonatal Drug Withdrawal." Pediatrics 101.6 June 1998: 1079-1088.

Compton, W.M., Y.F. Thomas, F.S. Stinson, and B.F. Grant. "Prevalence, Correlates, Disability and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Drug Abuse and Dependence in the United States." Archives of General Psychiatry 64.5 (2007): 566-576.

Etheridge, R.M., J.C. Smith, J.L. Rounds-Bryant, and R.L. Hubbard. "Drug Abuse Treatment and Comprehensive Services for Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Research 16 (2001): 563-589.

Hsue, P.Y., C.L. Salinas, A.F. Bolder, et al. "Acute Aortic Dissection Related to Crack Cocaine." Circulation 105 (2002): 1592.

Kumar, S., A. Kumari, and S. Muraka. "Lifestyle Factors in Deteriorating Male Reproductive Health." Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 47.8 Aug. 2009: 615-624.

Lam, W.K., J.D. Cance, A.N. Eke, et al. "Children of African-American Mothers Who Use Crack Cocaine: Parenting Influences on Youth Substance Use." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 32.8 (2007): 877-887.

Morton, W.A. "Cocaine and Psychiatric Symptoms." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion 1.4 Aug. 1999: 109-113.

O'Brien, M.S., and J.C. Anthony. "Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001." Neuropsychopharmacology 30.5 May 2005: 1006-1018.

Office of National Drug Control Policy. Apr. 6, 2005.

Richardson, G.A., L. Goldschmidt, and C. Larkby. "Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis." Pediatrics 120.4 Oct. 2007: e1017-e1027.

Singer, L.T., L.J. Eisengart, S. Minnes, et al. "Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cognition." Infant Behavioral Development 28.4 Dec. 2005: 431-444.


Last Editorial Review: 5/8/2012


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