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- Cocaine and crack abuse facts
- What is cocaine? What is crack?
- How is cocaine abused?
- What are cocaine's effects on the body and the mind?
- What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
- What are symptoms and signs of cocaine abuse and addiction?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose cocaine addiction?
- What is the treatment for cocaine and crack addiction?
- What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
- What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
- Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
Withdrawal symptoms and signs for cocaine include irritability, depression, stomach upset, itching, problems with sleep, and craving the substance. The depression may be severe, even resulting in suicidal thoughts, plans, or attempts.
What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
Drug addiction increases the risk of a number of negative life stressors and conditions. As with many other addiction sufferers, individuals who are addicted to cocaine are at increased risk for school failure, unemployment, homelessness, and domestic violence. Potential medical complications of cocaine abuse, particularly when in crack form, include tearing the major artery in the body (aortic dissection), which is associated with extremely high blood pressure. Cocaine use is also a risk factor for having a heart attack.
For children who are exposed to cocaine while in the womb (in utero/prenatally), the problems it can cause have been found to occur as early as infancy. For example, babies who had prenatal cocaine exposure have been found to be at higher risk for having memory problems and trouble paying attention. Preschool and school-aged children have been found to be more likely to have trouble paying attention and regulating their behaviors if they have been exposed to cocaine in utero. Children with a history of being exposed to cocaine during their first trimester of development in utero tend to have slower growth over the long term compared to children who are not.
Even if effectively treated, the prognosis of cocaine dependency can be challenging. Recovery from substance abuse is often characterized by episodes of remission (abstinence from drug use) and relapse.
Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
Kids Against Drugs (http://www.kidsagainstdrugs.com)
Narcotics Anonymous (http://www.na.org)
National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: 800-NCA-CALL
National Drug Information Treatment and Referral Hotline: 800-662-HELP (4357)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (http://www.nida.nih.gov)
National Cocaine Hotline: 800-COCAINE (262-2463)
National Clearinghouse for Alcoholism and Drug Information: 800-729-6686
National Resource Center: 866-870-4979
Ackerman, J.P., T. Riggins, and M.M. Black. "A Review of the Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Among School-Aged Children." Pediatrics 125.3 Mar. 2010: 554-565.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline and Resources for Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, Second Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association, 2006.
Barbosa de Carvalho, H., and S.D. Seibel. "Crack Cocaine Use and Its Relationship With Violence and HIV." Clinics (Sao Paulo) 64.9 Sept. 2009: 857-866.
Bhuvaneswar, C.G., G. Chang, L.A. Epstein, and T.A. Stern. "Cocaine and Opioid Use During Pregnancy: Prevalence and Management." Primary Care Companion for the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10.1 (2008): 59-65.
Brodie, J.D., B.G. Case, E. Figueroa, et al. "Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Vigabatrin for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence in Mexican Parolees." American Journal of Psychiatry 166 (2009): 1269-1277.
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Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. "Neonatal Drug Withdrawal." Pediatrics 101.6 June 1998: 1079-1088.
Compton, W.M., Y.F. Thomas, F.S. Stinson, and B.F. Grant. "Prevalence, Correlates, Disability and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Drug Abuse and Dependence in the United States." Archives of General Psychiatry 64.5 (2007): 566-576.
Etheridge, R.M., J.C. Smith, J.L. Rounds-Bryant, and R.L. Hubbard. "Drug Abuse Treatment and Comprehensive Services for Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Research 16 (2001): 563-589.
Gates, S., L.A. Smith, and D.R. Foxcroft. "Auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence." Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2006.
Guerrero, E., and C.M. Andrews. "Cultural competence in outpatient substance abuse treatment: Measurement and relationship to wait time and retention." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 119 (1-2) Dec. 2011: 13-22.
Heard, K., R. Palmer, and N.R. Zahniser. "Mechanisms of acute cocaine toxicity." Open Pharmacology Journal 2008.
Hsue, P.Y., C.L. Salinas, A.F. Bolder, et al. "Acute Aortic Dissection Related to Crack Cocaine." Circulation 105 (2002): 1592.
Johnson, B.A., N. Ait-Daoud, X.Q. Wang, et al. "Topiramate for the treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized clinical trial." Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry 70.12 Dec. 2013: 1338-1346.
Kumar, S., A. Kumari, and S. Muraka. "Lifestyle Factors in Deteriorating Male Reproductive Health." Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 47.8 Aug. 2009: 615-624.
Lam, W.K., J.D. Cance, A.N. Eke, et al. "Children of African-American Mothers Who Use Crack Cocaine: Parenting Influences on Youth Substance Use." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 32.8 (2007): 877-887.
Margolin, A., H.D. Kleber, S.K. Avants, et al. "Acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine addiction: a randomized controlled trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287.1 (2002): 55.
Moeller, F.G., et al. "Citalopram combined with behavioral therapy reduces cocaine use: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 33.3 (2007): 367.
Morton, W.A. "Cocaine and Psychiatric Symptoms." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion 1.4 Aug. 1999: 109-113.
O'Brien, M.S., and J.C. Anthony. "Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001." Neuropsychopharmacology 30.5 May 2005: 1006-1018.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. Apr. 6, 2005.
Richardson, G.A., L. Goldschmidt, and C. Larkby. "Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Growth: A Longitudinal Analysis." Pediatrics 120.4 Oct. 2007: e1017-e1027.
Singer, L.T., L.J. Eisengart, S. Minnes, et al. "Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cognition." Infant Behavioral Development 28.4 Dec. 2005: 431-444.