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- Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) facts
- What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile?)
- What Clostridium difficile colitis?
- How does Clostridium difficile cause colitis?
- What are the symptoms of Clostridium difficile colitis?
- Which antibiotics cause Clostridium difficile colitis?
- How is Clostridium difficile colitis diagnosed?
- How is Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
- Why are there relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis?
- How are relapses of Clostridium difficile colitis treated?
- What is new in Clostridium difficile?
Quick GuideBacterial Infections 101: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments
How does Clostridium difficile cause colitis?
C. difficile spores lie dormant inside the colon until a person takes an antibiotic. The antibiotic disrupts the other bacteria that normally are living in the colon and preventing C. difficile from transforming into its active, disease-causing bacterial form. As a result, C. difficile transforms into its infectious form and then produces toxins (chemicals) that inflame and damage the colon. The inflammation results in an influx of white blood cells to the colon. The severity of the colitis can vary. In the more severe cases, the toxins kill the tissue of the inner lining of the colon, and the tissue falls off. The tissue that falls off is mixed with white blood cells (pus) and gives the appearance of a white, membranous patch covering the inner lining of the colon. This severe form of C. difficile colitis is called pseudomembranous colitis because the patches appear like membranes, but they are not true membranes.
Not everybody infected with C. difficile develops colitis. Many infants and young children, and even some adults, are carriers (they are infected but have no symptoms) of C. difficile. C. difficile does not cause colitis in these people probably because;
- the bacteria stay in the colon as non-active spores, and
- the individuals have developed antibodies that protect them against the C. difficile toxins.
What are the symptoms of Clostridium difficile colitis?
Patients with mild C. difficile colitis may have:
Patients with severe C. difficile colitis may have:
- a high fever of 102 F to 104 F (39 C to 40 C),
- severe diarrhea (more than 10 watery stools a day) with blood, and
- severe abdominal pain and tenderness.
Severe diarrhea also can lead to dehydration and disturbances in the electrolytes (minerals) in the body. Rarely, severe colitis can lead to life-threatening complications such as toxic megacolon (markedly dilated colon), peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal), and perforation of the colon.