ciprofloxacin, Cipro, Cipro XR, Proquin XR (cont.)
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
PREGNANCY: Ciprofloxacin should be avoided during pregnancy, as safe use in pregnant women has not been established.
NURSING MOTHERS: Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in nursing mothers, as safe use in pregnant women has not been established.
SIDE EFFECTS: The most frequent side effects of ciprofloxacin include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, headache, and restlessness. Rare allergic reactions have been described, such as hives and anaphylaxis (shock). Ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
Many antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon (pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting ciprofloxacin (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their physician. Patients taking ciprofloxacin can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sun protection and sunscreens.
Ciprofloxacin as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, has been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some physicians recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis. Ciprofloxacin may worsen low blood glucose when combined with sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide).
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information
Last Editorial Review: 10/9/2013
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