ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cipro XR)

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
    Jay W. Marks, MD

    Jay W. Marks, MD

    Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.

What is ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cirpo XR)?

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Examples of other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class includes:

What brand names are available for ciprofloxacin?

  • Cipro and Cirpo XR are the brand names available for ciprofloxacin in the US.
  • Proquin XR is a discontinued brand, and is no longer available in the US

Is ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cirpo XR) available as a generic drug?

Yes

Do I need a prescription for ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cirpo XR)?

Yes

Why is ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cirpo XR) prescribed to patients?

  • Cipro, Cipro XR is used to treat infections of the skin, lungs, airways, bones, and joints caused by susceptible bacteria.
  • Cipro, Cipro XR also is frequently used to treat urinary infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. Cipro, Cipro XR is effective in treating infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Shigella bacteria.
  • Anthrax patients with fever and low white blood cell counts, and intra-abdominal infections are also treated with Cipro, Cipro XR.

What are the side effects of ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Cirpo XR)?

  • Cipro, Cipro XR as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, has been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon. Some physicians recommend that their patients discontinue vigorous exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
  • Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis.
  • Because of serious side effects associate with fluoroquinolones they should not be used for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or acute bacterial sinusitis unless there are no other alternatives.

The most common side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR are:

Rare allergic reactions include:

Possible serious side effects of Cipro, Cipro XR include:

Other serious side effects and adverse events of Cipro, Cipro XR include:

  • Cipro, Cipro XR should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving Cipro, Cipro XR.
  • Cipro, Cipro XR should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.
  • Many antibiotics, including Cipro, Cipro XR, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting Cipro, Cipro XR (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their physician immediately.
  • Patients taking Cipro, Cipro XR can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sunblock.
  • Fluoroquinolones worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas, for example, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab).
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/10/2016

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