Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Dr. Schiffman received his B.S. degree with High Honors in biology from Hobart College in 1976. He then moved to Chicago where he studied biochemistry at the University of Illinois, Chicago Circle. He attended Rush Medical College where he received his M.D. degree in 1982 and was elected to the Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society. He completed his Internal Medicine internship and residency at the University of California, Irvine.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Bronchitis is a term that describes inflammation of the bronchial tubes
(bronchi and the smaller branches termed bronchioles) that results in excessive
secretions of mucus into the tubes with tissue swelling that may narrow or close
off bronchial tubes.
Chronic bronchitis is defined as a cough that occurs every day with sputum
production that lasts for at least 3 months, 2 years in a row.
The major cause of chronic bronchitis is cigarette smoking; other causes
are bronchial irritants, usually inhaled repeatedly by the affected person.
Ideally, people should seek medical care before chronic bronchitis
develops. People should seek care for tobacco addiction and the occasional
chronic cough (less than daily for 3 months) to potentially avoid developing
chronic bronchitis. Those with chronic bronchitis should seek care for severe
dyspnea, cyanosis, and fever immediately.
Diagnosis for chronic bronchitis is done by clinical history and physical exam, while other tests
such as chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and CT imaging studies may also
Treatment of most people with chronic bronchitis is to quit cigarette
smoking and avoid air-borne bronchial irritants; medical treatments include
bronchodilators, steroids, and oxygen therapy.
The major complications of chronic bronchitis are severe shortness of
respiratory failure, and a high mortality rate.
Risk factors for chronic bronchitis include smoking, exposure to airborne
chemicals and secondhand smoke, dust, and other bronchial irritants.
A majority of cases of chronic bronchitis can be prevented by not smoking
and avoiding secondhand smoke. Avoidance of air-borne bronchial irritants,
vaccinations, and asthma prevention may help prevent bouts of chronic
Although the disease is chronic and progressive, patients that are
diagnosed early before much bronchial damage occurs and who stop smoking (or
avoid airborne dust, chemicals or other situations that lead to bronchial
irritation) often have a good prognosis for many years.