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- Patient Comments: Cholera - Symptoms and Signs
- Patient Comments: Cholera - Treatments
- Cholera facts
- What is cholera?
- What is the history of cholera?
- What are cholera symptoms and signs?
- What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
- What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur?
- Is cholera contagious?
- What is the incubation period for cholera?
- What is the contagious period for cholera?
- What physicians usually treat cholera?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose cholera?
- What is the treatment for cholera?
- Is it possible to prevent cholera? Are cholera vaccines available?
- What is the prognosis of cholera?
- Where can people find more information about cholera?
Quick GuideTravel Health: Vaccines & Preventing Diseases Abroad
Is it possible to prevent cholera? Are cholera vaccines available?
Yes, cholera can be prevented by several methods. Developed countries have an almost zero incidence of cholera because they have widespread water-treatment plants, food-preparation facilities that usually practice sanitary protocols, and most people have access to toilets and hand-washing facilities. Although these countries may have occasional lapses or gaps in these methods, they have prevented many disease outbreaks, including cholera.
Individuals can prevent or reduce the chance they may get cholera by thorough hand washing, avoiding areas and people with cholera, drinking treated water or similar safe fluids, and eating cleaned and well-cooked food. In addition, there are vaccines available that can help prevent cholera, although they are not available in the U.S., and their effectiveness ranges from 50%-90%, depending on the studies reported. The vaccines are oral preparations, because injected vaccines have not proved to be very effective. Two vaccines (Shanchol and Dukoral) are composed of killed V. cholerae bacteria and don't contain the enterotoxin B subunit. Unfortunately, both offer protection for only about two years, although one report suggests that Shanchol is about 65% effective over five years. Both vaccines are usually given in two doses, about one to six weeks apart. Unfortunately, the vaccines have limited availability; their recommended use is for people going to areas of known outbreaks with the likely possibility the person may be exposed to cholera. Some researchers suggest this limited oral vaccine availability should be changed and cite data that oral vaccine may help limit outbreaks, even after they have begun.
Research is ongoing; a research study in Haiti will try to determine if a two-dose vaccine in people will suffice to protect a difficult to treat (rural poor) population from cholera and thus save many lives. There are over 30 universities researching this disease (cholera's epidemiology, pathology, immunology, vaccine production, and other problems) currently worldwide.
In 2015, about 2 million doses of oral cholera vaccine were shipped to various outbreak areas, and currently available information suggests that there was a significant reduction in transmission of endemic cholera; the study will be concluded in 2018.
In June 2016, the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved the first vaccine available in the United States to prevent cholera. The vaccine is termed Vaxchora and is manufactured by PaxVax Bermuda LTD. It can be used in adults age 18-64 who are traveling to cholera-affected areas of the world. The vaccine is a live, attenuated (weakened) dose of V. cholerae serogroup 01, the most prominent cause of cholera worldwide. The vaccine is administered orally in about 3 ounces of fluid. It is about 80% effective in individuals challenged with Vibrio bacteria three months after vaccination. The vaccine should be administered at least 10 days before the individual travels to a cholera-endemic area.