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- Patient Comments: Cholera - Symptoms
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- Cholera facts
- What is cholera?
- What are cholera symptoms and signs?
- What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
- What is the history of cholera?
- What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur?
- Is cholera contagious?
- What is the incubation period for cholera?
- What is the contagious period for cholera?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose cholera?
- What is the treatment for cholera?
- What physicians usually treat cholera?
- What is the prognosis of cholera?
- Is it possible to prevent cholera? Are cholera vaccines available?
- Where can people find more information about cholera?
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What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?
Cholera is caused by the bacterium V. cholerae. This bacterium is Gram stain-negative, comma-shaped, and has a flagellum (a long, tapering, projecting part) for motility and pili (hairlike structures) used to attach to tissue. Although there are many V. cholerae serotypes that can produce cholera symptoms, the O groups O1 and O139, which also produce a toxin, cause the most severe symptoms of cholera. O groups consist of different lipopolysaccharides-protein structures on the surface of bacteria that are distinguished by immunological techniques.
The toxin produced by these V. cholerae serotypes is an enterotoxin composed of two subunits, A and B; the genetic information for the synthesis of these subunits is encoded on plasmids (genetic elements separate from the bacterial chromosome). In addition, another plasmid type encodes for a pilus (a hollow hairlike structure that supports bacterial attachment to human cells and facilitate the movement of toxin from V. cholerae into human cells). The enterotoxin causes human cells to extract water and electrolytes from the body (mainly the upper gastrointestinal tract) and pump it into the intestinal lumen where the fluid and electrolytes are excreted as diarrheal fluid. The enterotoxin is similar to toxin formed by bacteria that cause diphtheria in that both bacterial types secret the toxins into their surrounding environment where the toxin then enters the human cells. The bacteria are usually transmitted by drinking contaminated water, but the bacteria can also be ingested in contaminated food, especially seafood such as raw oysters.