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- Childhood obesity facts
- What is childhood obesity? How do health-care professionals diagnose childhood obesity?
- How prevalent is childhood obesity?
- What causes childhood obesity?
- What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
- What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
- What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
- What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
- Is it possible to prevent childhood obesity?
- What research is being done on childhood obesity?
- Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
The consequences of childhood obesity may be grouped into three areas: physical, mental, and economic. The known physical side effects of obesity are multiple and broad spectrum in character. These include the following:
- Increase in risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus due to excessive insulin secretion and organ resistance to insulin
- Menstrual irregularity and infertility
- Heart attack and stroke due to hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension
- Pulmonary issues centering on asthma and obstructive sleep apnea
- Orthopedic issues of bowed legs and hip instability (for example, slipped capital femoral epiphysis)
- Metabolic issues (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gallstones, and gastroesophageal reflux [GERD])
Equally as important as these physical side effects of obesity are the psychological consequences, which include the following:
- Lowering of self-esteem often reinforced by teasing and bullying at school as well as a recurring barrage of the normal/ideal physique displayed by the media and entertainment industries
- Depression, leading to possible further eating or an exaggerated overcorrection leading to eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa
The economic costs of childhood obesity are not often considered but are very important. Such effects include the following:
- The direct costs of medical office visits, diagnostic studies, and therapeutic services
- Indirect costs are both long- and short-term and include decrease in productivity, absenteeism, and premature death. Researchers estimate that over $147 billion are spent annually on the direct and indirect costs associated with obesity.