Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.
Dr. Perlstein received his Medical Degree from the University of Cincinnati and then completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at The New York Hospital, Cornell medical Center in New York City. After serving an additional year as Chief Pediatric Resident, he worked as a private practitioner and then was appointed Director of Ambulatory Pediatrics at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx.
Children who are victims of abuse
often experience symptoms of stress in reaction to the abuse, in addition to
symptoms that are specific to the kind of abuse they have suffered. The signs
and symptoms of abuse often vary according to the age and developmental stage of
the child. It is also important to understand that victims of child abuse are
often abused in more than one way, so the child may demonstrate symptoms
consistent with more than one kind of maltreatment. Examples of less specific
signs and symptoms of child abuse include
a tendency to either avoid, overly
please or ingratiate themselves to the abuser;
frequent complaints of physical symptoms, like headaches and
young kids may act younger than their age or than they had previously
spending more time alone, away from friends and family;
becoming more "clingy" and more dependent on certain relationships;
expressing thoughts about hurting him or herself or others;
behaviors and/or showing less concern for their own safety.
risk-taking behaviors in children include unsafe play, like climbing excessively
high or running in the street. More potentially specific signs and symptoms of
abuse may include the following:
Neglect: The child may lose weight or fail to gain weight
appropriately for their age. Their energy level and ability to learn will likely
decrease. They may become withdrawn and show physical signs of malnutrition,
like dry skin or hair or develop thinning hair.
Physical abuse: A child who is the victim of physical abuse may have
repeated physical injuries and emergency room or other doctor's visits with or
without adequate explanation. They may claim to be accident prone and may tend
to wear excessive clothing to cover injuries or otherwise engage in secrecy in
an attempt to protect the abuser from intervention by child welfare authorities
and law enforcement.
Emotional abuse: Emotionally abused children may make negative statements
about themselves or others that mimic the abuser, like calling his or herself
names or otherwise exhibiting pessimism or low self-esteem.
Sexual abuse: The child who has been sexually abused may exhibit sexual
knowledge or behaviors that are much older than is appropriate for their age.
They may also exhibit inappropriately sexual behavior, resulting in their
engaging in masturbating excessively or in front of others, as well as
participating in inappropriate sexual play with children. Medically, children who are sexually abused may develop
genital injuries or
sexually transmitted diseases.