Chagas Disease (cont.)

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What is the prognosis for Chagas disease?

In general, the prognosis for people who do not develop the chronic phase of Chagas disease is usually good. People who are diagnosed and treated in the acute phase of the disease usually have an excellent prognosis. However, individuals who go on to develop chronic-phase Chagas disease have a worse prognosis due to the damage caused to the heart, GI tract, and possibly other organs.

What are the complications of Chagas disease?

Most of the complications that develop with Chagas disease are seen in the chronic phase of the disease. Most of the complications are related to muscle changes (muscle atrophy, fibrosis and inflammation) caused by the parasites in two body organs, the heart and the GI tract. Consequently, heart failure and esophageal and colon enlargement (megaesophagus and megacolon) are serious complications of Chagas disease. These changes can result in weakness, difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, and death. Other organs may also malfunction (ureters, bile duct, for example).

What research is being done for Chagas disease?

Research is progressing on Chagas disease. The BENEFIT study plans to determine if 60 days of treatment with an antiparasitic drug (benznidazole) could prevent the progression of cardiac disease in patients with chronic Chagas disease (18-75 years of age). Another study on benznidazole is in progress to determine how well it performs in children (2-12 years of age) in prevention of deaths and complications in young adults. Researchers continue to search for a vaccine against Chagas disease; one group reports success in protecting mice with inactivated mutant parasites, while another group reports development of a vaccine made from parasite DNA. Aggressive research may provide ways to treat and prevent Chagas disease. However, a few researchers say all that is really necessary is to prevent primitive housing that leads to development of the domiciliary cycle.

REFERENCES:

CDC.gov. Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease).<http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/>

DeNoon, Daniel J. "Chagas Disease FAQ." WebMD.com. May 31, 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/news/20120531/chagas-disease-faq>.

Hotez, P.J., E. Dumonteil, L. Woc-Colburn, J.A. Serpa, S. Bezek, et al. "Chagas Disease: The New HIV/AIDS of the Americas." PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6.5 (2012): e1498.

Kirchhoff, Louis. "Chagas Disease." eMedicine.com. Dec. 17, 2009. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/214581-overview>.

"Mexico Distribution Map for Chagas' Disease." Insects, Disease, and History. <http://entomology.montana.edu/historybug/gallery/chagas_map_mexico.htm>.

Odero, Randy O., Kerry O. Cleveland, Kitonga P. Kiminyo, and Daniel R. Lucey. "African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness): Treatment & Medication." eMedicine.com. Feb. 16, 2009. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228613-treatment>.

"South America Distribution Map for Chagas' Disease." Insects, Disease, and History. <http://entomology.montana.edu/historybug/gallery/chagas_map_sa.htm>.

The Atlantic. Northern Virginia: 'Ground Zero' for Kissing Bug Disease. <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/07/northern-virginia-ground-zero-for-kissing-bug-disease/374383/>

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease)." Feb. 1, 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/chagas/>.


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/29/2014

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