Cervical Dysplasia

  • Medical Author:
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

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Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Hysterectomy may be used if dysplasia recurs after any of the other treatment procedures.

What is the prognosis (outlook) for cervical dysplasia?

Low-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN1) often spontaneously resolves without treatment, but careful monitoring and follow-up testing is required. Both ablation and resection of cervical dysplasia are effective for a majority of women with dysplasia. However, there is a chance of recurrence in some women after treatment, requiring additional treatment. Therefore, monitoring is necessary. When untreated, high grade cervical dysplasia may progress to cervical cancer over time.

Can cervical dysplasia be prevented?

A vaccine is available against nine common HPV types associated with the development of dysplasia and cervical cancer. This vaccine (Gardasil 9) has received FDA approval for use in women between 9 and 26 years of age and confers immunity against HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.

Abstinence from sexual activity can prevent the spread of HPVs that are transmitted via sexual contact. HPV infection can be transmitted from the mother to infant in the birth canal, since some studies have identified genital HPV infection in populations of young children. Hand-genital and oral-genital transmission of HPV has also been documented and is another means of transmission.

HPV is transmitted by direct genital or skin contact. The virus is not found in or spread by bodily fluids, and HPV is not found in blood or organs harvested for transplantation. Condom use seems to decrease the risk of transmission of HPV during sexual activity but does not completely prevent HPV infection. Spermicides and hormonal birth control methods do not prevent the spread of HPV infection.

Medically reviewed by Steven Nelson, MD; Board Certified Obstetrics and Gynecology

REFERENCES:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12407327 NCCN Guidelines, Version 3.2013.
http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp#site

http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf

http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm#a5

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 131. Screening for Cervical Cancer. Obstet Gynecol. V. 120.2012. p1222

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 99. Management of Abnormal Cervical Cytology and Histology. ACOG Compendium 2010. pp.402-427

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/13/2015

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