cefixime, Suprax

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GENERIC NAME: cefixime


DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Cefixime is a semi-synthetic (partially man-made), oral antibiotic in the cephalosporin family of antibiotics. The cephalosporin family includes cephalexin (Keflex), cefaclor (Ceclor), cefuroxime (Zinacef), cefpodoxime (Vantin), cefprozil (Cefzil), and many injectable forms. Like other cephalosporins, cefixime stops bacteria from multiplying by preventing bacteria from forming the walls that surround them. The walls are necessary to protect bacteria from their environment and to keep the contents of the bacterial cell together; bacteria cannot survive without a cell wall. Cefixime is active against a very wide spectrum of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (the cause of strep throat), Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The FDA approved cefixime in April 1989.



PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 400 mg. Suspension: 100 and 200 mg/5 ml.

STORAGE: Tablets and oral suspension may be stored at room temperature, 20 to 25 C (68 to 77 F), in a tightly closed container. Suspension may be refrigerated or stored at room temperature after mixing.

PRESCRIBED FOR: Cefixime is effective for infections of the middle ear (otitis media), tonsillitis, throat infections (pharyngitis), laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia caused by susceptible bacteria. It also is used for treating urinary tract infections and gonorrhea as well as acute bacterial bronchitis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

DOSING: The recommended adult dose is 400 mg once daily.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Probenecid (Benemid) may increase the blood concentration of cefixime by decreasing removal of cefixime by the kidney. This interaction sometimes is used to enhance the effect of cephalosporins.

Combining cefixime with aminoglycosides [for example, tobramycin (Tobradex) produces additive bacterial killing effects but also may increase the risk of harmful effects to the kidney.

Exenatide (Byetta) may delay or reduce the absorption of cephalosporins. Cephalosporins should be administered one hour before exenatide.

Cefixime may cause a false positive urine ketone test.

PREGNANCY: Safety in pregnancy has not been established for cefixime. There are no adequate studies in pregnant women; however, studies in animals suggest no important effects on the fetus.

NURSING MOTHERS: Safety in nursing mothers has not been established. It is not known if cefixime is excreted in breast milk.

SIDE EFFECTS: Cefixime is generally well tolerated, and side effects usually are transient. Reported side effects include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, skin rash, fever, joint pain and arthritis, abnormal liver tests, vaginitis, itching, headaches, and dizziness.

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