Cancer Causes Index

Featured: Cancer Risk Factors Main Article

Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.

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    • Bladder Cancer Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options...learn more »
      In This Article
      Bladder Cancer Article
      • Bladder cancer facts
      • What is the bladder?
      • What are the layers of the bladder?
      • What is bladder cancer?
      • What is the burden of bladder cancer in the U.S.?
      • What are the types of bladder cancer?
      • What are bladder cancer causes and risk factors?
      • What are bladder cancer symptoms and signs?
      • How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
      • How is bladder cancer staging determined?
      • What is bladder cancer grading?
      • What is transurethral surgery (TURBT) for bladder cancer?
      • What is the treatment for superficial bladder cancer?
      • What is surveillance for bladder cancer?
      • What is the treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer?
      • What is chemotherapy for bladder cancer?
      • What is the prognosis for bladder cancer?
      • Can bladder cancer be prevented?
      • Where can people find more information on bladder cancer?
      • What research is being done on bladder cancer?
    • Bone Cancer Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells...learn more »
      In This Article
      Bone Cancer Article
      • What is bone cancer? What is metastatic bone cancer?
      • Who is at risk for bone cancer?
      • What causes bone cancer?
      • What are bone cancer symptoms and signs?
      • What are the different types of bone cancer?
      • What kinds of bone cancer occur in children?
      • What tests are used to diagnose bone cancer?
      • What is the treatment for bone cancer?
      • How is bone cancer pain managed?
      • What is the prognosis for bone cancer?
      • Can bone cancer be prevented?
    • Brain Tumor A brain tumor can be either benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors...learn more »
      In This Article
      Brain Tumor Article
      • Brain tumor facts*
      • What is the brain?
      • What are the tumor grades and types?
      • Tumor grade
      • Types of primary brain tumors
      • What are the risk factors for brain tumors?
      • What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
      • How are brain tumors diagnosed?
      • What is the treatment for a brain tumor?
      • What type of surgery is available for brain tumors?
      • Radiation therapy for brain tumors
      • Chemotherapy for brain tumors
      • What about a second opinion for brain tumor treatment?
      • Nutrition during brain tumor treatment
      • What supportive care is available for patients and caregivers?
      • What about rehabilitation after brain tumor treatment?
      • What about follow-up care after brain tumor treatment?
      • Sources of support
      • Taking part in cancer research
    • Breast Cancer Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast...learn more »
      In This Article
      Breast Cancer Article
      • Breast cancer facts
      • What is breast cancer?
      • What are the different types of breast cancer?
      • What are the statistics on male breast cancer?
      • What causes breast cancer?
      • What are breast cancer risk factors?
      • What are breast cancer symptoms and signs?
      • How do physicians diagnose breast cancer?
      • How is breast cancer staging determined?
      • What is the prognosis of breast cancer?
      • What is the treatment for breast cancer?
      • Is it possible to prevent breast cancer?
      • What research is being done on breast cancer? Is it worthwhile to participate in a clinical trial?
      • I may have breast cancer, what questions should I ask my doctor?
      • Is the doctor sure I have breast cancer?
      • What type of breast cancer do I have?
      • What difference does a precise diagnosis make?
      • What has been done to exclude cancer in other areas of the same breast or in my other breast?
      • What type of medical team do I need for the most accurate diagnosis?
      • Is my family history relevant to my breast cancer diagnosis?
      • What other studies should be done on my breast tissue biopsy?
      • How urgent is it that I make decisions and begin treatment?
      • Should I stop taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
      • Even though my breast tumor does not have hormone receptors, should I take tamoxifen to reduce the risk of a new tumor?
      • I have a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a type of localized cancer. Why have I been advised to have a mastectomy when other women with invasive cancer have lumpectomies?
      • Should I start chemotherapy before surgery?
      • If I am advised to have a mastectomy, what are the risks and benefits of immediate breast reconstruction?
      • Should my lymph nodes be removed?
      • What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and what are its benefits and risks?
      • Are there any other questions I should ask my doctor?
    • Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus). Regular pelvic exams and Pap testing can detect precancerous...learn more »
      In This Article
      Cervical Cancer Article
      • Cervical cancer facts*
      • What is the cervix?
      • What is cancer?
      • What are the risk factors and causes of cervical cancer?
      • What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?
      • How is cervical cancer diagnosed?
      • How is staging of cervical cancer determined?
      • What is the treatment for cervical cancer?
      • What are methods of treatment for cervical cancer?
      • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
      • What follow-up care is involved after cervical cancer treatment?
      • What support, research, and clinical trials information is available for cervical cancer patients?
    • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
      In This Article
      Esophageal Cancer Article
      • Esophageal cancer facts*
      • What is the esophagus?
      • What is cancer?
      • What are the types of esophageal cancer?
      • What is a tumor grade test?
      • What tests are used to determine the stage of esophageal cancer?
      • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
      • Stages I and II of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
      • Stages I and II of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus
      • Stages III and IV of esophageal cancer (both types)
      • What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
      • What doctors treat esophageal cancer?
      • Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
      • Surgery
      • Radiation Therapy
      • Chemotherapy
      • Targeted Therapy
      • Nutrition
      • What follow-up care is necessary during recovery after esophageal cancer treatment?
      • Where can people with esophageal cancer find support?
      • What research is being done on esophageal cancer?

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