How much fluid do we need?
Anyone who has ever been on a diet will tell you
that you are supposed to drink at least 8 cups of water a day. Everyone
knows this, but finding the evidence to support it is another story. In 2004,
the Food and Nutrition Board established recommendations on the intake of water.
The recommendations were set based on the necessary amount needed to maintain
health and reduce chronic disease risk:
- The vast majority of healthy people
adequately meet their daily hydration needs by letting thirst be their guide.
- The report did not specify exact requirements for water but set general
recommendations for women at approximately 2.7 L (91 oz) of total water (from all
beverages and foods) each day and men at an average of approximately 3.7 L (125 oz daily) of total water.
- The panel did not set an upper
level for water.
- About 80% of people's total water intake comes from
drinking water and beverages (including caffeinated beverages), and the other
20% is derived from food.
- Prolonged physical activity and heat exposure
will increase water losses and therefore may raise daily fluid needs, although
it is important to note that excessive amounts of fluid can be life threatening.
Acute water toxicity has been reported due to rapid consumption of large
quantities of fluids that greatly exceeded the kidney's maximal excretion rate
of approximately 0.7 to 1.0 L/hour.
The report allows all fluids to be counted
into your total intake, so people began eliminating water from their diets in
favor of other liquids. However, the recommendations were not intended to reduce
water consumption. Water should be your primary source of fluid. Our bodies are
made up of over 60% water, not coffee, tea, juice, or soda. Caffeine is a treat
that will have health consequences when consumed in excessive amounts and is not
safe for everyone. Set limits on the treats that you allow yourself, and be sure
to give your body what it needs in adequate amounts. Too much of anything is just too much for our bodies to handle.
REFERENCES:Last Editorial Review: 2/2/2011
Al-Saleh, I, I. El-Doush, B. Grisellhi, and S. Coskun. "The Effect of Caffeine Consumption on the Success Rate of Pregnancy as Well Various Performance Parameters of In-Vitro Fertilization Treatment." Med Sci Monit. 16.12 Nov. 2010: CR598-605.
American Beverage Association
American Heart Association
for the Science in the Public Interest
"Children Increasingly Consuming Caffeine." National Drug Strategy Network. May-June 1998. <http://ndsn.org/mayjun98/caffeine.html>.
Cohen, D.L. J Clin Hypertens. 8.10 Oct. 2006: 744-745.
"Is It Really Decaf?" Consumer Reports. Nov. 2007. <http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/food/beverages/coffee-tea/is-it-really-decaffeinated-coffee-11-07/overview/decaf-coffee-ov.htm>.
"Caffeine Content of Food & Drugs." Center for Science in the Public Interest. Sept. 2007. <http://www.cspinet.org/new/cafchart.htm#table_coffees>.
Department of Health and Human Services
Diepvens, K. Am J Physiol Integr Comp Physiol. 292.1 Jan. 2007: R77-85.
Dixit, A. Indian J Phsyiol Pharmacol. 50.2 Apr.-June 2006: 175-180.
Dulloo, A.G. Am J Clin Nutr. 70.6 Dec. 1999: 1040-1045.
Eddy, N.B. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 33 (1928):
Fray, C.D. J Amer Diet Assoc. 105 (2005): 110-13.
Goldstein, A. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 5.4 Nov. 1997: 388-392.
Grandjean, A.C. J Am Coll Nutr. 19.5 Oct. 2000: 591-600.
Greenberg, J. Int J
Obes (Lond). 29.9 Sept. 2005: 1121-1129.
Greenberg, J.A. Am J Clin Nutr. 85 June
Harnack, L. J Am Diet Assoc. 99 (1999): 436-441.
Howland, J. Addiction. 106.2 (2011): 335-341.
Hughes, J.R. Am J Psychiatry. 149.1 Jan. 1992:
Iso, H., et al. "The Relationship Between Green Tea and Total Caffeine Intake and Risk for Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes Among Japanese Adults." Ann Intern Med. 144.8 Apr. 18, 2006: 554-562.
Juliano, L.M. Psychopharmacology. 176.1 Oct. 2004: 1-29.
Kendler, K.S. Am J Psychiatry. 156.2 Feb. 1999: 223-228.
Lane, J.D. Psychosom Med. 552.3 May-June 1990: 320-326.
March of Dimes
Maslova, E. Am J Clin Nutr. 92.5 Nov. 2010: 1120-1132.
National Academy of Sciences
Neuhauser-Berthold, M. Ann Nutr Metab. 41 (1997): 29-36.
Noordizij, M. J Hypertens. 23.5 May 2005: 921-928.
Ogawa, N. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 61.3 June
Passmore, A.P. Clin Sci. 72 June 1987: 749-756.
Rapuri, P.B. Am J Clin Nutr. 74 Nov. 2001: 694-700.
Satel, S. Am J Drug
Alcohol Abuse. 32.4 2006: 493-502.
Schuh, K.J. Psychopharmacology. 130.4 1997: 320-326.
Smith, A.P. Hum Psychopharmacol. 20.6 Aug.
Temple, J. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 33.6 Jan. 2009: 793-806.
The Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness
K.L. Am J Clin Nutr. 84.4 Oct. 2006: 936-942.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Warner, Jennifer. "Decaf Coffee Isn't Caffeine-Free." WebMD. Oct. 11, 2006. <http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20061011/decaf-coffee-isnt-caffeine-free>.
Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. Obes Res. 13.7 July 2005: 1195-1204.
W.C. "Habitual Caffeine Intake and the Risk of Hypertension in Women." JAMA. 294.18 Nov. 9, 2005: 2330-2335.