Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
The mammary gland is made up of lobules, glandular structures that produce
milk in females when stimulated to do so. The lobules drain into a system of
ducts, connecting channels that transport the milk to the nipple. Between the
glandular tissue and ducts, the breast contains fat tissue and connective
Both males and females have breasts; the structure of the male breast is
nearly identical to that of the female breast, except that the male breast
tissue lacks the specialized lobules, as there is no physiologic need for milk
production by the male breast. Abnormal enlargement of the male breasts is
medically known as gynecomastia.
The breast does not contain muscles. Breast tissue is located on top of the
muscles of the chest wall. Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels (a system of
vessels that drains fluid) are located throughout the breast. The lymphatic
vessels in the breast drain to the lymph nodes in the underarm area (axilla) and
behind the breast bone (sternum).
In females, milk exits the breast at the nipple, which is surrounded by a
darkened area of skin called the areola. The areola contains small, modified
sweat glands known as Montgomery's glands. These glands secrete fluid that
serves to lubricate the nipple during breastfeeding.
Ms. G. is a 40-year-old woman with two small
children. Like most women, she is concerned about her chances of developing
breast cancer. She asks her doctor about her risks.
Although breast cancer is a worry for most women, Ms. G. is especially worried because of a
family history of breast cancer. Her mother and sister had breast cancers that were diagnosed
at young ages.