- Patient Comments: Botulism - Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Botulism - Diagnosis
- Patient Comments: Botulism - Early Signs or Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Botulism - Cosmetic and Medical Treatments
- Patient Comments: Botulism - Treatment
- Botulism facts
- What is botulism?
- What causes botulism?
- What are risk factors for botulism?
- How many kinds of botulism are there?
- How serious is botulism?
- How does botulism neurotoxin affect the body?
- What kind of organism is Clostridium botulinum?
- How common is botulism?
- What are botulism symptoms and signs?
- How soon do botulism symptoms appear?
- What health specialists treat botulism?
- How do health care professionals diagnose botulism?
- What is the treatment for botulism?
- What are complications from botulism?
- What is the prognosis of people with botulism?
- Is it possible to prevent botulism?
- Is botulism neurotoxin really considered to be a potential biological weapon?
- Why are botulism neurotoxins used as cosmetic treatments or treatments for some medical conditions?
Quick GuideUncommon and Common Food-Poisoning Dangers in Pictures
How soon do botulism symptoms appear?
In foodborne botulism, symptoms generally begin 18-36 hours after eating a contaminated food, but they can occur as early as six hours or as late as 10 days afterward.
What health specialists treat botulism?
In addition to the patient's primary-care physician, other health care professionals may be appropriate to consult; for example, for hospitalized patients, a critical-care specialist, neurologist, infectious-disease specialist, and a pediatric specialist if a child or infant has the disease.
How do health care professionals diagnose botulism?
The patient's history and physical examination may suggest botulism, but these clues are usually not enough to allow a diagnosis of botulism. Symptoms of other diseases, such as a stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome (another disease of muscle paralysis), and myasthenia gravis (which also causes weakness and eyelid drooping) can appear similar to those of botulism. Special tests may be needed to exclude these other conditions. These tests may include a brain scan, spinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test (electromyography, or EMG), and a Tensilon test for myasthenia gravis. However, if botulism is strongly suspected (for example, several patients with botulism symptoms who ate from the same home-preserved food container), samples should be obtained for a mouse inoculation test (see below) and then the patients should be treated immediately with botulism antiserum. These tests will help distinguish botulism from infections with Salmonella, E. coli, and other Clostridium species (tetani).
The most direct way to confirm the diagnosis is to identify the botulinum neurotoxin in the patient's blood, serum, or stool. This is done by injecting the patient's serum or stool into the peritoneal cavity of mice. An equal amount of serum or stool from the patient is treated with multivalent antitoxin and injected in other mice. If the antitoxin-treated serum- or stool-injected mice live while those injected with untreated serum or stool die, then this is a positive test for botulism and is called the mouse inoculation test. The bacteria can also be isolated from the stool of people with foodborne and infant botulism, but this is not a definitive test. However, stool cultures can help differentiate botulism from E. coli, Salmonella, and other infectious agents.