Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
A boil, or skin abscess, is a collection of pus that
forms in the skin.
Antibiotics alone can be inadequate in treating
The primary treatments for boils include hot packs
and draining ("lancing") the abscess but only when it is soft and ready to
Boils themselves are not contagious, but the bacteria that cause boils are.
Most boils resolve on their own or with home remedies.
If you have a fever or long-term illness, such as
cancer or diabetes, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system,
you should contact your health care professional if you develop a boil
There are a number of ways to reduce the likelihood of developing some forms of boils, but boils are not completely preventable.
What is a boil? What are the symptoms and signs of a boil?
A boil is a localized infection in the skin that begins as a reddened, tender area. Over time, the area becomes firm, hard, and
more tender. Eventually, the center of the boil softens and becomes filled with infection-fighting white blood cells from the bloodstream to eradicate the infection. This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. Finally, the pus "forms a head," which can be surgically opened or spontaneously drain out through the surface of the skin. Pus enclosed within tissue is referred to as an abscess. A boil is also referred to as a skin abscess. Boils can occur anywhere on the body, including the trunk, extremities, buttocks, or other areas.
Picture: What does a boil look like?
There are several different types of boils:
carbuncle: This is an abscess in the skin usually caused by the bacterium
Staphylococcus aureus. A furuncle can have one or more openings onto
the skin and may be associated with a fever or chills. The term furuncle is used to refer to a typical boil that occurs within a hair follicle. The term
carbuncle is typically used to represent a larger abscess that involves a group of hair follicles and involves a larger area than a furuncle. A carbuncle can form a hardened lump that can be felt in the skin. The condition of having chronic, recurring boils is referred to as furunculosis or carbunculosis.
Picture of a carbuncle
Cystic acne: This is a type of abscess that is formed when oil
ducts become clogged and infected. Cystic acne affects deeper skin tissue than the more superficial inflammation from common acne. Cystic acne is most common on the face and typically occurs in the teenage years.
Hidradenitis suppurativa: This is a condition in which there
are multiple abscesses that form under the armpits and often in the groin area. These areas are a result of local inflammation of the sweat
glands. This form of skin infection is difficult to treat with antibiotics alone and typically requires a surgical procedure to remove the involved sweat glands in order to stop the skin inflammation.
Pilonidal cyst: This is a unique kind of abscess that
occurs in the crease of the buttocks. Pilonidal cysts often begin as tiny areas of infection in the base of the area of skin from which hair grows (the hair follicle). With irritation from direct pressure, over time the inflamed area enlarges to become a firm, painful,
and tender nodule
that makes it difficult to sit without discomfort. These frequently form after long
trips that involve prolonged sitting.
Individuals who have ingrown hairs may experience a painful acne-like eruption after shaving. The upper skin layers may have some dilation of the small superficial blood vessels, which gives the skin a red or flushed appearance. Pustules and rare abscesses may form on the ingrown hair sites due to the infection with common skin bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas.