Blood In Urine (cont.)
Gary D. Steinberg, MD
G. Joel DeCastro, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
How is blood in urine diagnosed?
The evaluation for blood in urine consists of taking a history, performing a physical examination, evaluating the urine under a microscope, and obtaining a culture of the urine. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urgency (feeling a strong need to urinate) and frequency (needing to urinate frequently), as well as the presence of fever and/or chills are suggestive of infection. Recent trauma, even if believed by the patient to have been inconsequential, should be considered as a potential cause. Abdominal and/or flank pain, especially if radiating to the inguinal or the genital area, may suggest kidney stones. All recent medications, including vitamins or herbal supplements, should be reviewed with the health-care provider. However, it is important to note that even if the patient has been taking a medication that is associated with bleeding, a full workup (as listed below) should still be undertaken.
The physical exam will focus on possible sources of hematuria. Bruising over the back or abdomen may indicate trauma. A digital rectal exam should be performed, as findings consistent with prostatitis (for example, tenderness on palpation of the prostate) or an enlarged prostate (suggestive of BPH or benign enlargement of the prostate gland) may be useful in making a diagnosis. A repeat urinalysis, as well as a urine culture, should be obtained. The presence of white blood cells on urinalysis is more consistent with a urinary tract infection. Protein, glucose, or sediment in the urine may indicate the presence of a disease of the kidneys. Blood tests are also important, as they will aid in assessing renal function and identifying any clotting abnormalities.
The CT scan is an imaging evaluation of the urinary tract. Prior to the procedure, the patient drinks an oral contrast agent and a dye is injected intravenously. The patient then goes through the CT scan machine and images are taken of the abdomen and pelvis. Another test that can be performed, the intravenous pyelogram (IVP), is also a type of X-ray evaluation of the urinary tract. In this procedure, a dye is injected into the veins, and this is filtered by the urinary tract. A series of X-rays are then taken over a 30-minute period to look for abnormalities. The CT scan is more commonly performed than the IVP to evaluate the urinary tract and should be considered the test of choice. Both of these studies are especially useful for evaluating the kidneys and ureters but not the bladder, prostate, or urethra. Therefore, a second examination called a cystoscopy is necessary. This is a simple 10-minute procedure wherein a thin, flexible cystoscope (or fiberoptic camera) is inserted via the urethra into the bladder in order to directly visualize any lesions or sources of bleeding. This is usually done with local anesthetic jelly injected into the urethra. Finally, urine cytology involves giving a urine sample to be analyzed by a pathologist for the presence of cancerous or abnormal-appearing cells.
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