Bladder Infection (Cystitis)

  • Medical Author:
    Siamak N. Nabili, MD, MPH

    Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

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Quick GuideUrinary Tract Infections (Bladder Infection): UTI Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

Urinary Tract Infections (Bladder Infection): UTI Symptoms, Treatment, Causes

What are some risk factors for bladder infection?

Female gender is one of the main risk factors for bladder infection. Because of the short urethral length, bacteria can gain access to the bladder much easier than in males.

Pregnancy also increases susceptibility to bladder infection. In fact, some pregnant women may have some type of urinary infections, including bladder infection, during their pregnancy. Pressure applied to the urinary structures by an enlarging uterus of pregnancy can disrupt the natural flow of urine triggering a bladder infection.

In postmenopausal women, physiological factors (vaginal dryness, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, and prolapse of the pelvic organs) can potentially increase the chances of developing bladder infections. Sexual intercourse in women is another risk factor for bladder infection.

In men with prostate enlargement, bladder infection is also more common than in general male population. Prostate enlargement can lead to obstruction of the normal flow of urine out of the bladder and into the urethra. Residual urine can then become infected.

Elderly persons are also at higher risk of suffering bladder infection as are individuals who take medications that weaken the immune defense system.

Urinary catheters (Foley catheters) are another potential risk for bladder infection. These urinary catheters are typically used in settings where an individual may not be able to urinate naturally. Urinary catheters simply provide a physical vehicle to transport bacteria from outside directly into the bladder and the urinary system. Foley catheters are commonly used in patients with:

Bladder infection is more commonly seen in patients with paralytic conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and other diseases of the nervous system, than in the general public. In these and other similar neurologic diseases, bladder function may be impaired due to abnormal nervous system control of the bladder (neurogenic bladder). As a result, urine may be retained in the bladder and not completely emptied after voiding. Urinary retention can be a cause of bladder infection. Furthermore, if urinary retention becomes more serious causing pain and kidney dysfunction, Foley catheters may become necessary to empty the bladder and relieve the bladder pressure caused by excessive retention of urine. A catheter, in turn, can substantially increase the risk of bladder infection.

In addition to the Foley catheter, any instrumentation of the urinary tract or nearby structures can potentially lead to cystitis. Medical procedures (cystoscopy, bladder biopsy, prostate procedures), vaginal pessary, and IUD (intrauterine device) placement for birth control can pose an increased risk of developing bladder infection.

In children and toddlers, risk for bladder infection may be increased in:

  • Females
  • Uncircumcised males
  • Those with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract
  • Caucasians (four times higher than in African Americans)
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/30/2015

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  • Bladder Infection - Children

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