Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Birth control methods can be broadly
classified into barrier methods (that prevent sperm cells from reaching the
egg), methods that prevent ovulation such as the
pill, and methods that allow
fertilization of the egg but prevent implantation of the fertilized egg inside
the uterus (womb).
Condoms and diaphragms are examples of
barrier birth control methods.
The decision about what kind of birth
control option to use is extremely personal, and there is no single choice that
is safest or best for all women or couples.
A woman should carefully weigh the
risks and benefits, along with the effectiveness of each method before choosing
a birth control method. A thorough and open discussion with a health care-professional can
help in this decision process.
Different forms of birth control have
different side effects and risk profiles.
The choice of birth control method
depends on many factors, such as the desire for reversible birth control
(preserving future fertility) or permanent birth control methods
sterilization). Some birth control methods, such as barrier methods, may offer
some protection against
sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), while most methods do not.
No method of birth control is 100%
effective in preventing STDs.
Some birth control methods have higher
success rates than others, but no method of birth control is 100% effective in
What are the different types of birth control available?
Types of birth control methods include options that prevent sperm from
reaching an egg, known as barrier methods; methods that prevent ovulation, and
methods that prevent implantation of a fertilized egg into the uterus.
Types of birth control include:
Hormonal birth control methods,
including birth control pills and patches
options of birth control involve the use of hormones to prevent ovulation in a woman. Although oral contraceptive pills are the most widely used hormonal method, other
options are available including the vaginal ring, hormone patches applied to the skin, and injections of progestin.
Common side effects of birth control pills can include
Heart attacks, blood clots, and
strokes are more serious complications of oral contraceptives.
Cigarettesmoking increases the risk of these complications. This risk is greatest in women over 35 who are heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes/day).
Birth control can be permanent or temporary. The woman and her partner, taking into consideration the ease of use, side effects, costs, and effectiveness of each method, must weigh the pros and cons of various birth control types.