Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are drugs that
block norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline) from binding to beta receptors
on nerves. There are three types of beta receptors and they control several
functions based on their location in the body.
receptors are located in the heart, eye, and kidneys;
beta (β2) receptors are
found in the lungs,
uterus, blood vessels, and
skeletal muscle; and
beta (β3) receptors are located in fat cells.
primarily block β1 and β2 receptors. By blocking the effect of norepinephrine
and epinephrine, beta blockers reduce heart rate; reduce blood pressure by
dilating blood vessels; and may constrict air passages by stimulating the
muscles that surround the air passages to contract.