Betty is a Registered Dietitian who earned her B.S. degree in Food and Nutrition from Marymount College of Fordham University and her M.S. degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University. She is the Co-Director and Director of nutrition for the New York Obesity Research Center Weight Loss Program.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Our innate desire for sweetness may be interfering with our ability to judge right from wrong. There is nothing in our diet that we can consume without a cost. The cost can be excess calories, fat, protein, or carbohydrates. It's even possible to consume excess water. We see calorie- and sugar-free sweeteners and believe that there isn't a cost, but maybe there is. Unfortunately, the research that has been done is failing us. With two sides battling over the safety of these sweeteners, it's imperative that we get the answers from the "gold standard" of research studies: independent, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies. It's our responsibility to be aware of what we are consuming and to protect our safety.
Acceptable daily intakes have been set for each nonnutritive sweetener for a reason; we can't ingest unlimited quantities of these additives. If you believe that you are experiencing any of the symptoms from the consumption of a nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener, then eliminating them from your diet is the best way to determine if it's so. Sweeteners are not essential nutrients in our diet, so they exist to nurture our sweet tooth, not our bodies.
Medically reviewed by Martin E Zipser, MD; American board of Surgery
Abou-Donia, M.B. J Toxicol Environ Health. 71.21 (2008): 1415-29.
Bell, W. Int J Occup Environ Health. Oct-Dec 2002;vol 8(4):pp
Bertino, M. Am J Clin Nutr. 36 (1982): 1134-44.
De Graaf, C. Physiol Behav. 67.4 Oct. 1999: 513-520.
Drewnowski, A. Am J Clin Nutr. 59 (1994): 338-345.
Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006.
Guthrie, J.F. J
Am Diet Assoc, Jan 2000;vol 100(1):pp 43-51.
Halldorsson, T.I. Am J Clin Nutr, Sept 2010;vol 92(3):pp 626-33.
Hull, J.S. Sweet Poison, New Horizon
Kauffman, G.B. Ambix. 1978;vol. 25:pp 101-207.
Lavin, J.H. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Jan 1997.vol 21(1):pp
Lean, M.E. BMJ, Oct 2004;vol 329(7469):pp 755-756
Liem, D.G. Physiol Behav, 2004;vol 83:pp 412-9.
Ma, J. Br J Nut, Sep 2010;vol 104(6):pp 803-6.
Maone, T.R. Dev Psychobiol, Mar 1990;vol 23(2):pp
Mattes, R.D. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;vol 57:pp 373-81.
Mattes, R.D. Am J Clin Nutr. Jan 2009;vol 89(1):pp 1-14.
Mazur, R.H. J Med Chem. 1970;vol 12:pp 1217-21.
Mercola J. Sweet Deception, Thomas Nelson, Inc, 2006.
Murphy SP. Am J Clin Nutr, Oct 2003;vol 78(4):pp 826S-833S.
Newman, L.C. Headache, Oct 2001;vol
Parks, E.J. Am J Clin Nutr, Feb 2000;vol 71(2):pp 412-433.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive
sweeteners. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;vol 104:pp 255- 275.
Raben, A. Am J Clin Nutr,
Oct 2002;vol 76(4):pp 721-729.