- Type 2 Diabetes: Learn the Warning Signs
- Diabetes Friendly Dining
- Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
- Patient Comments: Oral Diabetes Medications - Types
- Find a local Doctor in your town
- What are oral diabetes medications?
- What are the types of oral diabetes medications?
- What are examples of oral diabetes medications available in the US?
- What are examples of combination oral diabetes medications?
- What are the side effects of oral diabetes medications?
- Side effects of thiazolidinediones
- Side effects of DPP-4 inhibitors
- Side effects of biguanides (metformin [Glucophage])
- Side effects of sulfonylureas
- Side effects of meglitinides
- Side effects of α-glucosidase
- Side effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors
- Side effects of bile acid sequestrants
- Side effects of bromocriptine mesylate (Cycloset)
- What drugs interact with oral diabetes medications?
- What formulations of oral diabetes medications are available?
- What about taking oral diabetes medications during pregnancy or while breastfeeding?
What are the side effects of oral diabetes medications?
The nine classes of oral diabetes drugs differ in their side effect profile. The main side effects of each class are as listed.
Side effects of thiazolidinediones
Thiazolidinediones may cause
- liver disease,
- fluid retention,
- weight gain,
- increased risk for fractures,
- increased risk for bladder cancer, and
- increased risk for ovulation which may result in pregnancies.
Side effects of DPP-4 inhibitors
Although DPP-4 inhibitors are generally well tolerated, they may cause
- fluid retention,
- urinary tract infections (UTIs), and
- facial swelling.
Side effects of biguanides (metformin [Glucophage])
The most common side effects of metformin include
These side effects usually are mild and tend to decrease in severity over time despite continuation of treatment.
Other reported side effects of metformin include
- metallic taste,
- interference with vitamin B12 absorption, and
- exercise induced hypoglycemia.
Although rare, metformin may cause lactic acidosis, a serious condition that occurs due to the accumulation of acid in the body.
Side effects of sulfonylureas
Sulfonylureas most commonly cause hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and weight gain. Less common side effects are