antidiabetics-oral (cont.)

Pharmacy Author:
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:

What are examples of combination type 2 oral diabetes medications?

Combination oral diabetes drugs include:

  • glyburide/metformin (Glucovance),
  • glipizide/metformin (Metaglip),
  • rosiglitazone/metformin (Avandamet),
  • pioglitazone/metformin (Actoplus Met),
  • pioglitazone/glimepiride (Duetact),
  • alogliptin/metformin (Kazano),
  • canagliflozin/metformin (Invokamet),
  • dapagliflozin/ metformin (Xigduo XR),
  • sitagliptin/ metformin (Janumet XR),
  • saxagliptin/ metformin (Kombiglyze XR),
  • linagliptin/ metformin (Jentadueto), and
  • repaglinide/metformin (PrandiMet).

What are the side effects of type 2 oral diabetes medications?

The nine classes of type 2 oral diabetes drugs differ in their side effect profile.

Side effects of biguanides (metformin [Glucophage])

The most common side effects of metformin include:

These side effects usually are mild and tend to decrease in severity over time despite continuation of treatment.

Other reported side effects of metformin include:

Although rare, metformin may cause lactic acidosis, a serious condition that occurs due to the accumulation of acid in the body.

Side effects of sulfonylureas

Sulfonylureas most commonly cause hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and weight gain. Less common side effects are:

Side effects of meglitinides

The most common side effects of meglitinides are hypoglycemia and weight gain. The risk for hypoglycemia and weight gain appears to be low in comparison to sulfonylureas.

Side effects of thiazolidinediones

Thiazolidinediones may cause:

  • liver disease,
  • fluid retention,
  • weight gain,
  • increased risk for fractures,
  • increased risk for bladder cancer, and
  • increased risk for ovulation which may result in pregnancies.

Side effects of DPP-4 inhibitors

Although DPP-4 inhibitors are generally well tolerated, they may cause:

Side effects of α-glucosidase

α-glucosidase inhibitors most commonly cause:

  • gas,
  • bloating,
  • upset stomach, and
  • diarrhea.

Side effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors

The most common side effects associated with SGLT-2 inhibitors include:

Other reported side effects include:

  • decrease in blood pressure (hypotension),
  • kidney dysfunction,
  • dehydration,
  • hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or drugs that increase insulin secretion,
  • increase in cholesterol,
  • bladder cancer, and
  • hypersensitivity reactions.

Side effects of bile acid sequestrants

The most common side effects of bile acid sequestrants include:

Colesevelam may also cause an increase in triglyceride levels.

Bromocriptine mesylate (Cycloset) side effects

Side effects associated with bromocriptine therapy include:

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/18/2015