Anticoagulants (Anticoagulant Drug Class)

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

What are anticoagulants?

An anticoagulant is a drug (blood thinner) that treats, prevents, and reduces the risk of blood clots-breaking off and traveling to vital organs of the body, which can lead to life threatening situations. They work by preventing blood from coagulating to form a clot in the vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and brain.

For example, a DVT or deep vein thrombosis (blood clot in the leg or lower extremity) can happen if you have a medical condition that keeps you immobile or if you have been sitting for n long period of time without getting up and stretching, like traveling by plane, car, or train. If the clot breaks off from the vein or artery of a leg it can get lodged in the blood vessels of the lung where it can form a clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism). This is a life threatening medical condition. Similarly, a stroke can be caused by a clot lodged in a vessel in the brain.

Anticoagulant treatment is used to prevent the formation of new blood clots, and to treat existing clots by preventing them from growing larger in size. It also reduces the risk of embolization of blood clots to other vital organs such as the lungs and brain.

Why are they used?

An anticoagulant medicine is used in patients to prevent blood clots from forming in veins, arteries, the heart, and the brain of a patient. For example, if the clot travels to the patient's heart it can cause a heart attack or if one forms in the brain it may cause a stroke or TIA (mini-stroke, transient ischemic attack).

Examples of diseases and health conditions that require treatment with anticoagulants to reduce the risk of clots forming, or are used to prevent life-threatening problems include:

List of anticoagulant side effects

The most common side effect of treatment with anticoagulant medicine is bleeding. Treatment with these products may cause various degrees of bleeding, including fatal bleeds.

This list of adverse effects associated with anticoagulants are compiled from adverse effects listed for various anticoagulants and may not apply to every medicine.

Common side effects include:

Other side effects include:

Serious side effects include:

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/28/2017

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