Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Dr. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. He graduated with chemistry departmental honors from Harvey Mudd College. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Ankle pain can be caused by injury or disease of the ankle joint.
The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which
can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair).
Tendinitis of the ankle can be caused by trauma
or inflammatory arthritis.
How is the ankle designed, and what is the
The ankle is
a "hinged" joint capable of moving the foot in two primary directions: away from
the body (plantar flexion) and toward the body (dorsiflexion). It is formed by
the meeting of three bones. The end of the shinbone of the leg (tibia) and a
small bone in the leg (fibula) meet a large bone in the foot, called the talus,
to form the ankle. The end of the shinbone (tibia) forms the inner portion of
the ankle, while the end of the fibula forms the outer portion of the ankle. The
hard, bony knobs on each side of the ankle are called the malleoli. These provide
stability to the ankle joints, which function as weight-bearing joints for the
body during standing and walking.
Ligaments on each side of the ankle also provide
stability by tightly strapping the outside of the ankle (lateral
malleolus) with the lateral collateral ligaments and the inner
portion of the ankle (medial malleolus) with the medial collateral
ligaments. The ankle joint is surrounded by a fibrous joint capsule.
Tendons that attach the large muscles of the leg to the foot
wrap around the ankle both from the front and behind. The large
tendon (Achilles tendon) of the calf muscle passes behind
the ankle and attaches at the back of the heel. A large tendon
of the leg muscle (posterior tibial tendon) passes behind the
medial malleolus. The peroneal tendon passes behind the lateral
malleolus to attach into the foot.
The normal ankle has the ability to move the foot,
from the neutral right-angle position to approximately 45 degrees
of plantar flexion and to approximately 20 degrees of dorsiflexion.
The powerful muscles that move the ankle are located in the front
and back portions of the leg. These muscles contract and relax
Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Sports injuries refer to the kinds of injury that occur
during sports or exercise. While it is possible to injure any part of the body when playing
sports, the term sports injuries is commonly used to refer to injuries of the
Some of the most common sports injuries include:
Sprains—tears to the
ligaments that join the ends of bones together. The ankles, knees, and wrists
are commonly affected by sprains.
Strains—pulls or tears
of muscles or tendons (the tissues that attach the muscles to the bones)
along the outside front of the lower leg, commonly
seen in runners
Achilles tendonitisor rupture of the Achilles tendon—These injuries involve the large band of tissue that connects the calf muscles
to the heel
Fractures of the bones
Dislocation of joints
Acute injuries usually
occur suddenly while participating in sports or exercise. They may result in
sudden and severe pain, the inability to bear weight on a limb, or inability to move the affected part of the body. Chronic
injuries usually result from overuse of one area of the body over a period of
time. Symptoms of chronic injuries include soreness, dull aching pain, and pain
during participation in physical activity.