Anemia

  • Medical Author:
    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.

  • Medical Author: Siamak N. Nabili, MD, MPH
    Siamak N. Nabili, MD, MPH

    Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

What is hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is a red pigment that imparts the familiar red color to red blood cells and to blood. Functionally, hemoglobin is the key chemical compound that combines with oxygen from the lungs and carries the oxygen from the lungs to cells throughout the body. Oxygen is essential for all cells in the body to produce energy.

The blood also transports carbon dioxide, which is the waste product of this energy production process, back to the lungs from which it is exhaled into the air. The transport of the carbon dioxide back to the lung is also achieved by hemoglobin. The carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin is unloaded in the lungs in exchange for oxygen to be transported to the tissues of the body.

What does a low hemoglobin level mean?

Low hemoglobin is called anemia. When there is a low hemoglobin level, there is often a low red blood cell count and a low hematocrit, too. Reference ranges are slightly different from one source to another, but typically hemoglobin of less than 13.5 gram/100 ml is abnormal in men and less than 12.0 gram/100 ml in women. Continue Reading

Reviewed on 7/16/2015
References
REFERENCE:

Maakaron, Joseph E, et al. "Anemia." eMedicine. 4 Nov. 2011. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/198475-overview>.

IMAGES:

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2.Wikipedia - Mikael Häggström

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15.Getty Images/Blend Images

16.Photolibrary.com

17.Bigstock

18.Getty Images/Blend Images

19.Getty Images/Rubberball

20.iStock

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