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- Anaphylaxis facts
- What is anaphylaxis?
- What is the history of anaphylaxis?
- What are common causes of anaphylaxis?
- What are anaphylaxis symptoms and signs?
- Are there any disorders that appear similar to anaphylaxis?
- How is anaphylaxis diagnosed?
- Recommendations after an initial episode of anaphylaxis
- What are emergency measures used in the treatment of anaphylaxis?
- What is the treatment for anaphylaxis?
- Is it possible to prevent anaphylaxis?
- What is the prognosis of anaphylaxis?
Quick GuideCould I Be Allergic? Discover Your Allergy Triggers
Recommendations after an initial episode of anaphylaxis
People who have experienced anaphylaxis of any cause should be educated about their trigger(s) and the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Those at risk for anaphylaxis should carry self-injectable epinephrine (EpiPen, Adrenaclick) and understand when and how to use them. A wrist bracelet indicating the risk and trigger(s) for anaphylaxis can be helpful. Allergic diseases are often treated by avoidance measures, which will be reviewed in detail below.
What are emergency measures used in the treatment of anaphylaxis?
If you suspect that you or someone you are with is having an anaphylactic reaction, the following are important first aid measures. In general, try to perform these in the order that they are presented.
- If the patient has injectable epinephrine, inject epinephrine immediately. The shot is given into the upper outer thigh and can be administered through clothing.
- Call emergency services or 911 immediately.
- Have a second injectable epinephrine device ready to use in case of a severe reaction or a biphasic reaction.
- Place a conscious person lying down, and elevate the feet if possible.
- Stay with the person until help arrives.
- If trained, begin CPR if the person stops breathing or doesn't have a pulse.
After the initial epinephrine dose, if the symptoms are returning or still significant, one can inject another dose of epinephrine if available. All self-injectable epinephrine devices come in a two-pack for this reason. Even if anaphylaxis responds to epinephrine, a person should be monitored in an emergency-care setting. Steroids and antihistamines may be given, but these are not helpful in the initial management of anaphylaxis, and should not take the place of epinephrine. Steroids may be most helpful to prevent a biphasic reaction.
The normal side effects of epinephrine include pallor, shakiness, a rapid heart rate, and a sense of doom. These symptoms resolve rapidly, typically within minutes.
What is the treatment for anaphylaxis?
Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis. It acts to reverse the effects of anaphylaxis on all body systems. Its effects include the following:
Skin: improves itching and hives
Respiratory: relaxes bronchial tubes in lungs, thus improving shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough
Cardiovascular: constricts blood vessels, thus improving blood pressure
Epinephrine also helps prevent the release of more mediators of the allergic reaction. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is not first-line therapy for anaphylaxis. This has primary effects on improving skin symptoms, such as hives and itching. In cases of severe anaphylaxis, in addition to epinephrine, other medications, IV fluids, and oxygen are administered once one receives care from a health-care professional. The choice of interventions will depend on the severity of the reaction.
Anaphylaxis may be biphasic roughly 20%-30% of the time. This is also known as a "late-phase reaction." In biphasic anaphylaxis, symptoms improve but then return hours to even days later. Treatment for biphasic reactions is the same as treatment of initial anaphylactic reactions. It is thought that steroids might reduce the risk of a biphasic reaction.