Dr. Gbemudu received her B.S. in Biochemistry from Nova Southeastern University, her PharmD degree from University of Maryland, and MBA degree from University of Baltimore. She completed a one year post-doctoral fellowship with Rutgers University and Bristol Myers Squibb.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Introduction to OTC pain medication and fever reducers
Pain is the most common reason for people to seek medical advice, pain medicine
is the most frequently purchased over-the-counter (OTC)
medication. Fever is one of the most common reasons that children visit the
doctor. Moreover, one in five emergency room visits for children is due to fever. Since OTC medicines that are effective in treating pain also are
effective at reducing fever, they will be considered together in this article.
What are the classifications of pain?
Pain can be classified as acute, chronic non-malignant, chronic malignant.
Headaches are the most common cause of pain and can be considered a separate class of
Acute pain is experienced by everyone; it is usually short in duration with
an identifiable pathology, a predictable prognosis, and treatment that usually
includes analgesics. Acute pain is most often due to injuries. Examples of
Acute pain from such injuries can respond well to OTC pain medication.
Muscle soreness also may respond well to heat and massage.
Chronic non-malignant pain
Chronic non-malignant pain often begins as acute pain, but it continues
beyond the typical time expected for resolution of the problem or persists or
recurs for other reasons. It is a type of pain associated with progressive,
debilitating diseases such as arthritis. Treatment for chronic non-malignant
pain can include OTC medications . However, because of the chronic nature of the
pain, regular use of OTC medications can lead to side effects.
Chronic malignant pain
Chronic malignant pain is pain associated with advanced, progressive diseases
(often fatal) such as cancer,
disease. OTC medications for pain may be useful for the management of chronic
malignant pain. However, stronger prescription medications are usually
What are the types of headaches?
Headaches are the most common reason that pain medications (analgesics) are
taken. Headaches can be classified into three types:
migraine or vascular, and
Muscle contraction headache
A muscle contraction headache, the most common type, results from the
continuous tightening of the muscles in the upper back, neck, or scalp. This
type of headache often is described as a tight, pressing, or throbbing sensation
of the head. It can be brought on by
emotional stress and anxiety ("tension
headaches"). Acute muscle contraction headaches generally respond well to OTC
analgesics, but chronic muscle contraction headaches can require physical
therapy or relaxation techniques.