Anal Cancer (cont.)

Treatment Options by Stage

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

Treatment of stage 0 is usually local resection.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage I Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage I anal cancer may include the following:

  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, more chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy for cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage II Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage II anal cancer may include the following:

  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, more chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage IIIA Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIA anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, more chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal beam radiation.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IIIA anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage IIIB Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIB anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy.
  • Local resection or abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Lymph nodes may also be removed.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IIIB anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Stage IV Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IV anal cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • Chemotherapy with radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IV anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/12/2015

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