Anal Cancer (cont.)

Treatment Options by Stage

Stage 0 Anal Cancer (Carcinoma in Situ)

Treatment of stage 0 anal cancer is usually local resection.

Stage I Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage I anal cancer may include the following:

  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy for cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Stage II Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage II anal cancer may include the following:

  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Stage IIIA Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIA anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal beam radiation.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Stage IIIB Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIB anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy.
  • Local resection or abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Lymph nodes may also be removed.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Stage IV Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IV anal cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • Chemotherapy with radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 9/20/2013

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