Table of Contents
- Allergy facts
- Allergy overview
- What is an allergy?
- What is an allergy? (Continued)
- What causes allergies?
- What causes allergies? (Continued)
- Who is at risk for allergies and why?
- What are common allergic conditions, and what are allergy symptoms and signs?
- Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
- Allergic eyes (conjunctivitis)
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
- Hives (urticaria)
- Where are allergens?
- In the Air We Breathe
- In What We Ingest
- Touching Our Skin
- Injected Into Our Body
Quick GuideAllergy: What Happens in a Nasal Allergy Attack
What causes allergies? (Continued)
In the pet cat example, the dad and the youngest daughter developed IgE antibodies in large amounts that were targeted against the cat allergen. The dad and daughter are now sensitized or prone to develop allergic reactions on repeated exposures to cat allergen. Typically, there is a period of "sensitization" ranging from days to years prior to an allergic response. Although it might occasionally appear that an allergic reaction has occurred on the first exposure to the allergen, there needs to be prior exposure in order for the immune system to react. It is important to realize that it is impossible to be allergic to something that an individual has truly never been exposed to before, though the first exposure may be subtle or unknown. The first exposure can even occur in a baby in the womb, through breast milk, or through the skin.
IgE is an antibody that all of us have in small amounts. Allergic individuals, however, generally produce IgE in larger quantities. Historically, this antibody was important in protecting us from parasites. In the example above, during a sensitization period, cat dander IgE is overproduced and coats other cells involved in the allergic response, such as mast cells and basophils, which contain various mediators, such as histamine. These cells are capable of leading to an allergic reaction on subsequent exposures to the cat allergen (cat dander). The cat protein is recognized by the IgE, leading to activation of the cells, which leads to the release of the allergic mediators mentioned above. These chemicals cause typical allergic symptoms, such as localized swelling, inflammation, itching, and mucus production. Once primed, or sensitized, the immune system is capable of mounting this exaggerated response with subsequent exposures to the allergen.
On exposure to cat dander, whereas the dad and daughter produce IgE, the mom and the other two children produce other classes of antibodies, which do not cause allergic reactions. In these nonallergic members of the family, the cat protein is eliminated uneventfully by the immune system and the cat has no effect on them.
Another part of the immune system, the T-cell, may be involved in allergic responses in the skin, as occurs from the oils of plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, or reactions to metal, such as nickel. The T-cell may recognize a certain allergen in a substance contacting the skin and cause an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can cause itching, rash, and discomfort. Continue Reading
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Medically Reviewed By: Ellen Reich, MD, Board Certified in Allergy and Immunology, Board Certified in Pediatrics and Michael Manning, MD, of the American Board of Allergy and Immunology.
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