Alcohol and Nutrition (cont.)
How much can you safely consume?
Alcohol is clearly not essential in our diet
and can end up causing considerable problems. Here are some dietary guidelines for alcohol
- Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so
sensibly and in moderation -- defined as the consumption of up to one drink per day
for women and up to two drinks per day for men.
- Alcoholic beverages should
not be consumed by some individuals, including those who cannot restrict their
alcohol intake, children and adolescents, individuals taking medications that
can interact with alcohol, those with specific medical conditions, women of
childbearing age who may become pregnant, those who are pregnant, and
- Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that
require attention, skill, or coordination, such as driving or operating
The reason that people consume alcohol is clear, but the cost of this
consumption is not. Alcohol is toxic to our bodies, and the cost can be
irreversible when intake exceeds recommended levels. The damage is not limited
to alcoholics, so everyone who consumes alcohol needs to pay attention to how
much they are drinking, what they are drinking, and when they are doing so.
REFERENCES:Last Editorial Review: 6/14/2011
American Counsel for Drug Education
American Diabetes Association
Bassus, S. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28.5 May 2004: 786-791.
Caton, S.J. Physiol Behav 81.1 Mar 2004:
Caton, S.J. Physiol Behav 84.3 Mar 2005: 371-377.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Denke, M.A. Am J Med Sci 320.5 Nov. 2000: 320-326.
Duyuff, R.L. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons,
FDA News Release. Nov. 17, 2010.
Garrow, J.S., eds., et al. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone,
Haber, P.S. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24.4 Apr. 2000: 407-408.
Herbert, V., eds., et al. Total Nutrition. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1995.
Hetherington, M.M. Physiol Behav 74.3 Oct. 2001: 283-289.
Hillman, R.A. Annu Rev Med 33
Keng-Lian, W. Am J Med 119.9 Sept. 2006: 802-804.
Klatsky, A.L. Am J Epidemiol 158.6 Sept. 2003: 585-595.
Kondo, K. Biofactors 22.1-4 2004: 303-310.
Laitinen, K. N Engl J Med 324.11 Mar. 1991: 721-727.
Laufer, E.M. Eur J Clin Nutr 58.11 Nov. 2004: 1518-1524.
Leo, M.A. Am J Clin Nut 69.6 June 1999: 1071-1085.
Liquori, A. Drug Alcohol Depend 63.2 July 2001: 123-129.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Beyond Hangovers
Rimm, E. Epidemiology 12.4 July 2001: 380-382.
Schroder H. Eur J Nutr 46.7 Oct. 2007: 369-376.
Sizer, F., and E. Whitney. Nutrition Concepts and Controversies. Toronto, Canada: Thomson Wadsworth, 2003.
Snoek, H.M. Am J Clin Nutr 80.4 Oct. 2004: 823-831.
Tolstrup, J. BMI 332.7552 May 2006: 1244-1248.
Tolstrup, J. Curr Atheroscler Rep 92.2 Aug. 2007: 116-24.
Wardlaw, G.M., and M. Kessel. Perspectives in Nutrition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Yeomans, M.R. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6.6 Nov. 2003: 639-644.
Zakhari, S. Alcohol Res Health 29.4 Apr. 2006: 245-254.