• Medical Author:
    Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD

    Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

10 Ways to Stop Stress

Quick GuideCommon Types of Phobias

Common Types of Phobias

Is there information on support groups and coping for both agoraphobia patients, their family members, and other loved ones?

The following organizations can provide information, self-help tips, and/or support for individuals experiencing agoraphobia as well as their families.

ABIL (Agoraphobics Building Independent Lives), Inc.
3805 Cutshaw Ave., Suite 415
Richmond, VA 23230
Phone: 804-353-3964
Fax: 804-353-3687

Agoraphobics in Motion
1719 Crooks
Royal Oak, MI 48067-1306
Phone: 248-547-0400

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

American Counseling Association

American Psychiatric Association

American Psychological Association

Anxiety Disorders Association of America
8730 Georgia Ave., Ste. 600
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Voice: 240-485-1001
Fax: 240-485-1035

Council on Anxiety Disorders
Route 1, Box 1364
Clarkesville, GA 30523
Phone: 706-947-3854
Fax: 706-947-1265

Freedom From Fear

National Anxiety Foundation
3135 Custer Dr.
Lexington, KY 40517-4001

National Association of Social Workers

National Mental Health Association

National Panic/Anxiety Disorder News, Inc.

Phobics Anonymous


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Bienvenu, O.J., Onyike, C.U., Stein, M.B., Chen, L., Samuels, J., Nestadt, G., and Eaton, W.W. Agoraphobia in adults: incidence and longitudinal relationship with panic. The British Journal of Psychiatry 188: 432-438, 2006.

Biondi, M. and Picardi, A. Increased probability of remaining in remission from panic disorder with agoraphobia after drug treatment in patients who received concurrent cognitive-behavioural therapy: a follow-up study. Psychotherapeutic Psychosomatics 72(1): 34-42, 2003.

Bruce, S.E., Vasile, R.G., Goisman, R.M., Salzman, C., Spencer, M., Machan, J.T., Keller, and M.B. Are benzodiazepines still the medication of choice for patients with panic disorder with our without agoraphobia? American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 1432-1438, August 2003.

Bruce, S.E., Yonkers, K.A., Otto, M.W., Eisen, J.L., Weisberg, R.B., Pagano, M., Shea, T., and Keller, M.B. Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and panic disorder: a 12-year prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 1179-1187, 2005.

Chou, T., A. Asnaani, and S.G. Hofmann. "Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 18.1 (2012): 74-81.

Collier, D.A. FISH, flexible joints and panic: are anxiety disorders really expressions of instability in the human genome? The British Journal of Psychiatry 181: 457-459, 2002.

Fava, G.A., Ruini, C., Rafanelli, C., and Grandi, S. Cognitive behavior approach to loss of clinical effect during long-term antidepressant treatment: A pilot study. American Journal of Psychiatry 159: 2094-2095, December 2002.

Furukawa, T.A. and Watanabe, N. Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. The British Journal of Psychiatry 188: 305-312, 2006.

Gersley, E. Phobias: Causes and treatments. All Psych Journal, 11/17/01.

Godemann, F., Ahrens, B., Behrens, S., Berthold, R., Gandor, C., Lampe, F., and Linden, M. Classic conditioning and dysfunctional cognitions in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia treated with an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator. Psychosomatic Medicine 63: 231-238, 2001.

Goodwin, R., Faravelli, C., Rosi, S., Cosci, F., Truglia, E., de Graaf, R., and Wittchen, H.U. The epidemiology of panic disorder and agoraphobia in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology 15(4): 435-443, 2003.

Grant, B.F. The epidemiology of DSM-IV panic disorder and agoraphobia in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67(3): 363-374, 2006.

Ito, L.M., de Araujo, L.A., Tess, V.L.C., de Barros-Neto, T.P., Asbahr, F.R., and Marks, I. Self-exposure therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia: randomized controlled study of external v. interoceptive self-exposure. The British Journal of Psychiatry 178: 331-336, 2001.

Kenwright, M., Liness, S., and Marks, I. Reducing demands on clinicians by offering computer-aided self-help for phobia/panic. The British Journal of Psychiatry 179: 456-459, 2001.

Kessler, R.C. The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 63(4): 415-424, 2006.

Kikuchi, M., Komuro, R., Oka, H., Kidani, T., Hanaoka, A., and Koshino, Y. Panic disorder with and without agoraphobia: comorbidity within a half-year of the onset of panic disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 59(6): 639-643, 2005.

Kumano, H., Kaiya, H., Yoshiuchi, K., Yamanaka, G., Sasaki, T., and Kuboki, T. Comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome, panic disorder and agoraphobia in a Japanese representative sample. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 99(2): 370-376, 2004.

Leinonen, E., Lepola, U., Koponen, H., Turtonen, J., Wade, A., and Lehto, H. Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 25(1): 25-32, 2000.

Magee, W.J., Eaton, W.W., Wittchen, H.U., McGonagle, K.A., and Kessler, R.C. Agoraphobia, simple phobia and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 53(2): 159-168, 1996.

McLean, C.P., and E.R. Anderson. "Brave men and timid women? A review of the genter differences in fear and anxiety." Clinical Psychology Review 29 (2009): 496-505.

Milrod, B. Emptiness in agoraphobia patients. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 55(3): 1007-1026, 2007.

Nascimento, I. Psychiatric disorders in asthmatic outpatients. Psychiatry Research 110(1): 73-80, 2002.

Roberge, P., Marchand, A., Reinharz, D., and Savard, P. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: A randomized, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Behavior Modification 32(3): 333-351, 2008.

Schuckit, M.A., and Hesselbrock, V. Alcohol dependence and anxiety disorders: what is the relationship? Focus 2: 440-453, 2004.

Shandley, K., Austin, D.W., Klein, B., Pier, C., Schattner, P., Pierce, D., and Wade, V. Therapist-assisted, internet-based treatment for panic disorder: can general practitioners achieve comparable patient outcomes to psychologists? Journal of Medical Internet Research 10(2), 2008.

Sibrava, N.J., C. Beard, A.S. Bjornsson, et al. "Two-year course of generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder in a longitudinal sample of African American adults." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81.6 (2013): 1052-1062.

Takeuchi, D.T., N. Zane, et al. "Immigration-related factors and mental disorders among Asian Americns." American Journal of Public Health 97.1 Jan. 2007: 84-90.

Thomas, S.E., Thevos, A.K., and Randall, C.L. Alcoholics with and without social phobia: a comparison of substance use and psychiatric variables. Journal of Studies on Alcohol (60) 1999.

Wittchen, H.U., Nocon, A., Beesdo, K., Pine, D.S., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., and Gloster, A.T. Agoraphobia and panic: Prospective-longitudinal relations suggest a rethinking of diagnostic concepts. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 77(3), 2008.

Yardley, L., Britton, J., Lear, S., Bird, J., and Luxon, L.M. Relationship between balance system function and agoraphobic avoidance. Behavior Research Theory 33(4): 435-439, 1995.

Zimmerman, M. and Mattia, J. Principal and additional DSM-IV disorders for which outpatients seek treatment. Psychiatric Services 51:1299-1304, October 2000.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/21/2015

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