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What is the 4K biomarker?
The 4K biomarker is a blood test that measures four different proteins in the blood to assess prostate cancer risk. The blood test that assesses these biomarkers is called the 4KScore Test. It suggests the possible risk that a significant prostate cancer would be found.
What does the 4KScore Test measure?
The 4Kscore Test relies on the measurement of four prostate-specific kallikreins in the blood: Total PSA, Free PSA, Intact PSA, and Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2).
What is the role of the 4KScore Test in prostate cancer screening?
The 4Kscore Test helps clarify the biopsy decision-making process by determining a patient-specific probability for finding aggressive, Gleason score 7 or higher prostate cancer upon biopsy. These are the aggressive prostate cancers that always require medical treatment or intervention. The blood test results are combined in an algorithm with patient age, digital rectal exam findings (nodules vs. no nodules), and prior negative biopsy (yes or no) to give physicians a personalized score for individual patients. The 4Kscore Test predicts the risk percent score from less than 1% to greater than 95% of a man having aggressive cancer in a prospective biopsy.
How does the 4KScore Test minimize unnecessary prostate biopsies?
The 4Kscore Test has undergone extensive clinical research and laboratory test validation. Based on the results of clinical studies, as many as 30% to 58% of biopsies are avoidable using the 4Kscore Test.
Punnen, S., et al. "Finding the Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The 4Kscore Is a Novel Blood Test That Can Accurately Identify the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer." Reviews in Urology 17.1 (2015): 3-13.